Features of management Systems explained by Koontz and O’ Donnell:

Koontz and O’ Donnell explained the following features:-

1. Although systems are given boundaries so that we can analyse them there are no systems (except possibly that of the universe) which are ‘closed’ that is completely independent of others.

2. In the same way, although management science and theory arbitrarily create as a boundary the knowledge underlying the managerial job, they as well as what managers do, must be related to and interact with many environmental variables.


Thus, when managers plan, they have no choice but to take into account such external variables, as markets, technology, social forces, laws, and regulations.

When managers design an organizational system to help people in an enterprise to perform, they cannot help but be influenced by the pattern of behaviour people bring to their jobs from a variety of family, school, church, and other influence. In short, organizations are open system.

Systems also play an important part within the era of managing itself. There are organizations systems, planning systems, control systems and many others. And within these we can find subsystem, such as systems of delegation, budgeting and feedback of information control.