4 characteristics management suggested by Aawrine, Ritchey, and Hutley in management:

However, in spite of AMA’s assertion of management as a profession it falls short of strict disciplinary standards of some other accepted standards. Some of these shortcomings are enumerated by Aawrine, Ritchey, and Hutley. These are:

1. Skill not fully developed. Even though there are some principles of management that axe fully established and universal in nature, it still has not evolved a complete set of techniques and skill that are universally applicable.

2. The ethical codes are not as strict as desirable-unlike medical profession and the legal profession which has very strict ethical Standard for performance, the manager still uses high-pressure tactics and unfair competition to increase the market share of their product.


3. No uniform method of entry into the field of management anybody can proclaim to be a manager. While doctor and engineers have to go through a required course of study and need a license from a professional body to practice, no such license is required to practice as a manager.

Accordingly, some managers may have a Master’s Degree in Business Administration and others may not have any degree at all and still be able to practice as managers.

4. The objective is monetary rather than service service to society and humanity is the basic function of a professional and the monetary reward is only secondary. For example, a doctor’s objective is to save lives.

Management as a professional lacks that service objective. Dalton McFarmland says, “Management is only in part a profession. Licensing is nonexistent; no large-scale movement for licensing managers is under way.


No single organized group professes to speak for all managers although a number of associations assist particular groups such as personnel managers. There is no universal code of ethics, although many subgroups within management have advanced their own codes.

Also, it is doubtful that concepts of service transcend the importance of salary or fees for most managers”.

Peter Drucker, sees the following difficulties:

“No greater damage could be done to our economy or to our society than to attempt to ‘professionalize’ management by ‘licensing’ managers or by limiting access to management to people with a special academic degree any serious attempt to make management ‘scientific’ or a ‘profession is bound to lead to the attempt to eliminate those ‘disturbing nuisances’, the unpredictability’s of business life – its risks, its ups and downs, its work full competition, the ‘irrational choices’ of the consumer – and, in the process, the economy’s freedom and its ability to grow”.