List of 4 essay for your xat exam on 1. Comment on the financial relations between the Union and the States in India 2. Essay on interactive television 3. Essay on Plastic hazards 4. Twenty-five years term of Nuclear Non- proliferation Treaty will come to an end in 1995.
xat exam essays
1. Comment on the financial relations between the Union and the States in India
Sources of income of Union Govt.-the sources of the income of the Union govt, are mentioned in Union List and some of these sources are income tax other than agriculture income, customs and excise duty.
Sources of income of State govt.-the sources of income of State govt, find mention in State List. These sources are-land revenue, taxes on vehicles, sales tax etc.
There are certain taxes which are levied by the Union but are collected and appropriated by the states. These taxes are- stamp duties and duties of excise on medicinal and toilet preparation.
To monitor the relations, there are provisions for the establishment of the Finance Commission under Art. 280 of the constitution. The functions of the Finance Commission have been enlarged by 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments which makes it the duty of the commission to suggest the measures needed to augment the consolidated Fund of a state to supplement the resources of the Panchayats and Municipalities in the states.
Further, according to Article 360, during the Proclamation of Financial Emergency, the President can give financial directives to the States.
Besides distribution of tax revenues, the Union govt, supplements the financial resources of the states by two other means
- Grants-in-aid given to the states.
- Advancement of central loans.
So far as financial relations between the center and the states are concerned, it amply proves that the constitution has established a strong Union Govt.
In the post 1991 era of liberalization it has got new dimension. With the development of means of communication the role of Union govt, has increased for the balanced and rapid economic development.
2. Essay on interactive television
Interactive Television is television with interactive content and enhancements.
Interactive television provides richer entertainment and more information about what is showing. Literally it combines traditional TV watching with the interactivity of the Internet and personal computer.
In the cable market, the increase in average revenue per user (ARPU) that VOD delivers is a strong reason for a new digital business model.
Moreover, new market entrants in the broadband triple-play market see VOD as a key element of their service mix of high-speed Internet telephony and television.
In the near future, both the established cable operators and the new triple-play market entrants will look to Internet Protocol (IP) to deliver their new VOD services. Even if the final delivery network is not IP, IP-based VOD can offer advantages within the operator’s core network.
IP enables operators are to use a common network layer for VOD, Internet access, voice over IP and possibly even broadcast television. IP can be viewed as a key enabler for cable and broadband VOD. Not only does it reduce the cost of entry and delivery, but also it makes delivering VOD services easier because the same IP experts already required for the Internet and voice delivery can apply their skill directly to video delivery with minimal extra training.
Components of VOD:
(i) User interface and display
(ii) Network interface
(iii) Local Server
(iv) Local database
(v) High speed backbone
(vi) Multimedia archive
(vii) Multimedia archive and distributor World’s first feature film “Toy Story” was
3. Essay on Plastic hazards
Plastics are prepared from non-biodegradable material. No virus or bacteria consume them so that they could be recycled in the ecological system. They have become one of the major pollutants in recent times. By burning they produce lethal toxic gases like carbon monoxide, Co2, H20, CH4 etc. Thus they cause air pollution and suffocation in the metropolitan cities as there is no other means of their disposability. They, even contribute to the global warming phenomena. They choke the urban drainage system and dirty water swoops over the localities and road causing diseases like Dengue, Malaria etc. They have been rightly termed Urban Scare. Plastic bottles floating across the ocean and the plastic coming from the rivers have become seeds of ecological chaos for wherever they end up. British Antarctic Survey has found that the rising tide of plastic debris has replaced wood as major debris as they carry new organisms which are causing alien invasion which is an important cause of diversity loss. The solution lies in using bio-degradable material like Jute, Hemp. Woodpulp made sacks and packages.
4. Twenty-five years term of Nuclear Non- proliferation Treaty will come to an end in 1995
(i) Article I prohibits the transfer of nuclear weapons or other explosive devices to any state, whether a party to the treaty or not, whether a nuclear weapon state or not, directly or indirectly through an alliance.
(ii) Art II prohibits non-nuclear weapon nations from manufacturing or otherwise acquiring nuclear weapon or devices excluding peaceful nuclear devices.
(iii) Art III obligates the non-nuclear weapons parties to accept international safe guards specified in a special arrangement with International Atomic Energy Agency.
(iv) Art IV states that all parties to the treaty have the right to full exploitation of the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes and obligates these parties to cooperate with other countries in developing nuclear technology.
(v) Art V obligates the nuclear weapon parties to make available nuclear explosive devices for peaceful purposes to non-nuclear weapons parties under international supervision.
Because of discriminatory nature of the treaty, India is unwilling to sign it. The renewal will lead to increasing pressure on India to sign the treaty. It may have adverse economic and political consequences for India.