List of 10 Short Essays for IAS Exam


List of 10 Short Essays Topics for IAS Exam 1.Regionalism 2. Main recommendations of the Platform for Action (PFA) 3. Biodiversity 4. Nanotechnology 5. Crippling the king in Nepal 6. Indo-Russian Defence Co-operation 7. Relationship between credit availability and agricultural growth in India 8. What are the main determinants of voting behavior in India? 9. Child labour in India 10. Alternative Energy Sources.

Short Essays Topics for IAS Exam

1. Regionalism

The people living in a certain state naturally have a negative feeling for the people of the other state.

Along with this people of every state have their own universal consciousness and they have a fellow feeling for the other people of the same state. When we talk about regionalism we mean these feelings.


Thus, regionalism is that feeling which accepts that the benefits of one’s own state are supreme and the benefits of the other states of the same country can be ignored.

Regionalism talks of the supremacy of the state concerned. In this context we can say that Regionalism is that movement which tries to give a political form of the existing situation just to benefit the state concerned.

After India’s freedom, the Congress was the only party which had full faith from the people. The feeling of regionalism was originated in South India.

People protested massively in Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh etc., against Hindi language and were inclined to be concerned only about their own states’ benefits.


Later infact, these same feelings influenced Uttar Pradesh, Bihar etc. As a result with time, the states started having their regional political parties, and gradually they became strong.

In today’s context, neither of the two main political parties, i.e., the Congress and the Bhartiya Janata party is able to form a government on its own strength, either in the centre or in the states.

As a result, the system of coalition government has started in India. But the biggest demerit of this system is that political blackmailing has started and to satisfy one state, or one party’s own needs, other supporting parties have started pressurising the party in power badly.

It is the gift of regionalism and the regional parties that in 1990s we experienced a restless polity in India. In recent times, the incidents that took place in Assam and Maharashtra, i.e., the killing of the people residing in the states who belong to other states is nothing but a move for political benefit.


However we should point out that because of the regionalism the various states have gotten benefits and a safeguard of the rights is also confirmed.

2. Main recommendations of the Platform for Action (PFA)

The main recommendations of the Plat­form for Action (PFA) under the 1995 Beijing Women’s Conference are mentioned below:

There are four important parts of the Platform for Ac­tion:

(1) The dialogue on the recommendation of the purposes.


(2) Global framework,

(3) Special area for awakening, and

(4) Important aim and action.

Women empowerment was the main agenda in this Conference. In the conference the main recommendations of Vienna conference were asked to be implemented.


In the recommen­dations, the demand for enough power and right regarding social, economic and political area was raised.

In the recommendations it was also made clear that to fulfill the aims and objectives of the ‘Platform for Action’ a faithful trial and strong promises are necessary. For the empowerment of women a global framework has been constructed.

Under this, it has been made clear that all the primary rules and activities are to be implemented within five years. Under this on the basis of popu­lation and development United Nations Confer­ence was held, on the basis of environment and development, conferences were held.

Admitting the usefulness of the conferences and cooperat­ing with the rules and then implementation, nec­essary arrangements were made.

Under the glo­bal framework (a) the economic condition of the women, (b) political empowerment (c) health and nutrition (d) reformations regarding labour etc. were shown as the future policies.

For the awakening under special sectors, the following sectors have been depicted: Lack of property, insufficient and faulty education and training, Worsening situation regarding health, violence against women, inequality regarding the economic sector, absence in law-making, inequal­ity between men and women specially regarding power and decision-making women are lagging behind.

Ignorance is seen regarding the human rights of the women, gender inequality among children, discrimination at employment places etc. prevail.

Important political objectives and activities – those issues should be given importances which are related to women and the importance should be on finding out the solutions regarding the prob­lems related to the women.

Importance should be put on those women who are comparatively backward. Women empowerment issues, like the socio-economic situation of the women, affected by the nature etc. and cultural, linguistic and age- related areas were given the prime importance in the conference.

3. Biodiversity

Biodiversity means different species of animals, plants and micro organisms. These include various species and sub-species, and the various species have different nature.

The exploi­tation of nature by human beings for owns benefit is the main reason for the destruction of biodiversity.

A large amount of forest resources and the plant and animal species living in the forest are destroyed by human beings in the course of development of agricultural areas, roads, establishment of industries and mining.

The large scale hunting of many species of ani­mals for the hide, teeth, medicine has resulted in many of them being extinct. Many micro-organ­isms are also being extinct due to industrial trans­portation and manmade pollution.

Even the oce­anic activities are adversely affecting, corals and micro-organisms in sea. Many species of birds are also disappearing because of hunting and destruction of their natural habitat.

The degeneration of biodiversity is affecting the humans in the largest amount. Various types of natural and organic resources are degenerat­ing and this is negatively affecting the humans only. The extinction of many species is affecting the food cycle.

The mankind is being deprived of many beneficial products from the forests and plants also. The increasing incidents of floods, droughts and tsunami etc. are also indirectly due to degeneration of biodiversity.

4. Nanotechnology

Nanotechnology is a ubiquitous tech­nology with a potential to impact on every as­pect of science, technology and education.

Nanotechnology is producing many revolution­ary, applications such as: quantum computing, surface and materials modification, novel sepa­rations and sensing technologies, and human biomedical replacements. Interfacing materials with biology is widely believed to be the exciting new frontier for nanotechnology.

The importance of nanotechnology is evident from the interest shown by governments around the world.

Many major studies have been undertaken on the impact of nanotechnology on the world’s economy. There is a growing sense in the scien­tific and technical community that due to nanotechnology modern technology is about to enter a golden new era.

The world is about to be able to build things that work on the smallest possible length scales, atom by atom with the ul­timate level of finesse.

One of the most significant impacts of nanotechnology will be at the bio-materials interface. Whether a prosthetic implant is accepted or rejected, whether a drug is effective or whether living tissue will regenerate are all questions di­rected to the nanometer scale. Interfacing materi­als with biology is widely believed to be the ex­citing new frontier for nanotechnology.

The world investment in nanotechnology has been dominated by the United States and Ja­pan. This is expected to continue. However, in­creasing investment is expected by European countries such as the UK, Germany, France, Swe­den, Switzerland and Asian countries such as China, Taiwan and Korea. Since the release of this report the US has increased this investment for 1998/1999 to US $232m and projects US$ 500m for 1999/2000.

5. Crippling the king in Nepal

Nepal’s king is losing its power gradu­ally since the restoration of democracy. Nepal’s parliament unanimously passed a landmark resolution calling for the monarchy’s powers to be slashed, and reducing the king to a ceremo­nial figurehead.

The move comes nearly a month after a massive pro-democracy campaign forced. King Gyanendra to give up the governmental powers he had seized, and reinstate parliament.

The historic resolution approved by Nepal’s parliament is a first step towards taking control of the army from the king and stripping him of the authority to make final decisions on major national issues. It sets the stage for scrapping the King’s principal advisory body, allowing his ac­tions to be challenged in court, and forcing the monarchy to pay taxes.

The resolution also envi­sions removing the royal titles from the govern­ment and the army. It will no longer be “His Majesty’s Administration,” but simply the Nepal government, and the Nepalese Army will no longer be “Royal.”

The resolution was passed unanimously by the 205-member house. Presenting the resolution, Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala said it rep­resents the aspirations of the people. There is strong popular demand for clipping the powers of the king, who became highly unpopular after he took control of the government last year. He reinstated parliament after weeks of violent anti- monarchy protests.

In Nepal it is seen, as a trans­formation from a feudal or semi-feudal society, towards a more people’s oriented and represen­tative kind of set-up.

Although the constitution also stipulates that no parliamentary bill can become law until the king signs it. But Nepal’s political parties in­sist the resolution reflects the will of the people, and cannot be challenged.

For now, the king only faces a diminished role, but the future of the mon­archy itself hangs in the balance. Nepal will hold elections in the coming months to choose a body that will draft a new constitution which will re­define the king’s status.

6. Indo-Russian Defence Co-operation

India and Russia have a long history of strategic and defence cooperation. ‘During the cold war era also, when India adopted a policy of non-alignment, Russia (hitherto USSR) had supported India in strategic matters.

The relationship in terms of defence cooperation improved further between the two countries when Indira Gandhi was Prime Minister. Since then, India has been a major buyer of Russian defence equipments. Russia has also supported India in the transfer of defence technology.

During the recent years, Prime Ministers from India and Presidents from Russia have vis­ited each other’s countries and finalized many defence cooperation agreements.

Under those defence cooperation treaties, India and Russia produced jointly the supersonic cruise missile – Brahmos; India obtained the ultra-modern Sukhoi and MIG fighter planes from Russia, and other weapons in large amount besides the Ad­miral Gorschkov warship.

The latest in this se­ries is Defence Relationship Agreement between India and Russia in January 2007, under which India has to procure ultra-modern aircraft and other weapons from Russia.

Joint production of ultra-modern fighter aircraft of 5th generation is also included in the Agreement. Though, India has diversified its purchase of weapons of late, and instead of being dependent on only Russia, has been buying from USA, UK, Israel and France, still Russia has remained the main source of weapon-purchasing and joint defence exer­cises.

7. Relationship between credit availability and agricultural growth in India

Almost 60% of the labour power in India is associated with cultivation. A large num­ber of Indian farmers are labour-intensive. In such conditions, farmers should be made able to invest on cultivation, land reform and increase in produce by providing loan.

In India non-gov­ernmental businessmen, commercial banks etc. are providing loans to the farmers. Data tell us that the users of loan in the states of Punjab, Haryana, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra etc. are really increasing production.

On the other hand, loans have been used less in the eastern states like Uttaranchal, Jharkhand, Orissa etc. As a re­sult, crop production is also less in these states.

In India during Green Revolution, agricultural loans were given importance. During 2005-2006 in agricultural sector Rs. 1,17,899 crore loans were made available. In the last 40 years the right use of agricultural loan made it possible to pro­duce crops three times more.

Here, emphasis should be given on the right use of loan and precautions should be taken so that incidents like suicide by the farmers on the spoiling of their crops, or incidents like not being able to gain prop­erly by the production, and moneylessness do not repeat.

The provisions for the reforms regarding the agricultural loan have been made keeping in view that many marginal farmers do not get enough loan and many organisations’ activities are also not efficient. In such conditions, agricul­tural loan cannot play its role accordingly in increasing agricultural production.

The recon­struction of the village economies is important. In this way in India getting agricultural loan and increasing agricultural production have been developing.

8. What are the main determinants of voting behavior in India?

For the past 57 years in India, the democratic system has been working smoothly.

In fact in India the Indian citizens enjoy their full freedom and understanding in voting power.

However many a times voters put priority to the emotionally attached benefits also. Common mass vote is often influenced by the benefit issues related to the daily life, viz. price rise, unemployment, law and order system and any developmental issues.

National security, war and peace related issues, economic development, the development in science and technology etc. are the issues which really influence the voters’ behaviour in India. For a long time, regionalism has been determining the voter behaviour.

The issues related to caste, reservation politics, issues influencing religious feelings have been possibly the biggest determinants of the voting behaviour for the past two decades.

The voters are emotionally attached to the political parties and they vote in the name of the party only.

The ability and specialty and of Course popularity of the candidate also influence the voters. In addition to all these, some incidents related to a particular place, sudden happenings, any pity feeling for anybody or any party are also main determinants in the voter behavior.

9. Child labour in India

A lot of steps have been taken in In­dia to get rid of child labour in India. In Article 24 and Article 39 of the Indian Constitution, child labour and exploitation have been abolished for the first-time.

India has signed with the Interna­tional Labour Organization for the understand­ing regarding the abolition of child labour. To check the issue regarding child labour India has constituted a child labour commission.

The Su­preme Court has also issued a lot of directions regarding the child labour. Besides the Constitu­tional activities and lawful activities, the child developmental activities are also given impor­tance and to determine them India is really trying hard.

Wherever child labour is implemented, it should be noted that the children are treated well. In December 2006, by passing the Child Right Conservation Bill, India established full preparation to abolish child labour.

According to 1986 child labour abolition Bill, child labour was to abolish fully. In general developmental activities also, wherever it is pos­sible, special attention should be given to the child welfare.

Special plans and policies regard­ing child’s welfare and development are to be carried on regularly. Especially in those states where till today child labour is prevailing the State Government as well as the NGO’s should take all necessary steps to stop child labour.

In this context, the National Child Labour Scheme is worth mentioning under which for the aboli­tion of child labour special schools were estab­lished and various welfare programmes viz. train­ing for employment, giving health-related facili­ties etc. were main objectives.

With the help of central government’s economic support, till to­day, about 100 schemes like this are being run well. More dedicated awakening, ^mass awaken­ing regarding child labour abolition is needed in India at present.

10. Alternative Energy Sources

An alternative energy source refers to energy sources which are not based on the burning of fossil fuels or the splitting of atoms.

The undesirable effects of pollution both from burning fossil fuels and from nuclear waste by products have given a fillip to the search of alternative energy sources.

Some of the possible alternatives are:

1. Solar Energy:

It is one of the most resourceful sources of energy for the future. Solar energy is presently being used on a smaller scale in furnaces for homes and to heat up swimming pools. On a larger scale use, solar energy could be used to run cars, power plants and space ships.

2. Wind Energy:

Wind Power is another alternative energy source that could be used without producing byproducts that are harmful to nature. Like solar power, harnessing the wind is highly dependent upon weather and location. The average wind velocity of Earth is around 9m/ sec. And the power that could be produced when a wind mill is facing the wind of 1Omiles/hr is around 50 watts.

3. Geothermal Energy:

Geothermal energy is an alternative energy source, although it is not resourceful enough to replace more than a minor amount of the future’s energy needs. Geothermal energy is obtained from the internal heat of the planet and can be used to generate steam to run a steam turbine. This in turn generates electricity, which is very useful form of energy.

4. Tidal Energy:

Similar to the more conventional hydroelectric darn, the tidal process utilizes the natural motion of the tides to fill reservoirs, which are then slowly discharged through electricity.

5. Hydroelectricity:

Hydroelectricity comes from the damming of rivers and utilizing the potential energy stored in the water. As the water stored behind a dam is released at high pressure, its kinetic energy is transferred onto turbine blades and used to generate electricity.

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