Advertisements in a newspaper can be classified as below:
(1) Classified Advertisements:
They usually are small insertions chargeable per word. Classified advertisements are sub-divided under headings like public appointments, situations vacant, situations wanted, matrimonial, educational, to let, business, property, court and company notices, tender notices, public notices, auction notices, etc.
(2) Display Advertisements:
They usually cover products and are therefore mostly illustrated. They may cover all sorts of every-day life products like cosmetics, domestic items, kitchen ware, electronic goods, sanitary products, etc. etc.
Modern newspapers are also nowadays having display advertisements for appointments under which big concerns issue their insertions when they need specialised staff, particularly senior executives or when they launch a new apprenticeship scheme for their would-be executives.
(3) Business Directory:
Newspapers are innovating new ways to attract advertisements. Some newspapers give industrial and consumer products under the heading of business directory.
Classification of advertisements in a newspaper helps the readers to locate the advertisements of their need and the advertisers to select the right heading for putting in their insertions.
One of the changes that have taken place in press advertising is reflected in the use of a wider variety of typefaces. These are mainly variations of the older faces but have been revived for their decorative virtue. Modern developments in type founding have been encouraged by the desire of the advertisement writer to find new media of artistic expression in typography. Copywriters and make-up men are making good use of the new types available. The advertisement artists are often the first to make the use of them by adopting them in the feature columns later on.
Use of Art in Advertisement:
Advertisements are now more illustrated than ever before. All sorts of media are used-line and wash drawings, photographs etc. Modern advertising has a strong artistic appeal and is built up skillfully by the combined use of type illustration and wide space. Advertisers have learnt largely through the services of the advertising agencies-that the value of space is not a fixed factor but is depending entirely on the use made of it. For this reason, all big firms entrust their advertising work to advertising agencies that have got specialists to do the job. Even modest firms prefer to spend their annual sums meant for advertising through the advertising agencies. Thus the advertising departments of newspapers have now to deal mostly with advertising agencies.
Advertisements are usually received by the advertising department in one or the other of the following forms:
(i) Copy which is to be entirely set in type;
(ii) Copy which is to be partly set and partly made up of blocks or stereos supplied by the advertiser;
(iii) In matrix form i. e., in dry flung from which a stereotype plate can be cast;
(iv) In stereo or electro form which obviates the necessity of any casting or setting.
(In this case the stereo has to be merely mounted and placed in the page form)
Standardization of Layout:
The lay-out and general types’ scheme is standardised in most newspapers. There is also no need to see the proofs with the designs already approved. A designed advertisement, therefore, gives the maximum return for its cost. From the newspaper standpoint this method has definite advantages. Firstly there is no type-setting cost. Secondly compositors can be used for other work. Make-up on the stone is also simplified as there is no type to be handled or untied, with the usual possibility of displacement or what is called “pie-“ing and thus losing time.
Advertisements received in matrix form also reduce cost and time, although in this case the Stereotyping Department has to prepare the casts. Sometimes difficulties arise when there is imperfection in the matrix or stereo; any slight “sink” in the stereo means wastage of time. But on the whole matrix is more welcome than the cast or type-setting.
Copy Writing Facility:
Most advertisers today want to make the best of the high cost involved in advertising in newspapers. A good number of them require proofs of their advertisements before publication. Sometimes newspapers offer special copy writing facilities of their own advertising department to help their clients. This is a service which is gradually growing.
There is also seasonal phasing of advertising. For example the Dewali and Christmas seasons attract more advertisements and there is rush to typeset advertisements. In such a season newspapers sometimes increase the number of pages and requisition additional work force in their composing department. Most newspapers are well equipped to meet unusual demands of this nature.
Organisation of Additional Effort:
Advertising does not come into a newspaper without due effort. Like any other kind of business it has to be carefully developed. Most of the newspapers have their special representatives or Assistant Public Relation Officers stationed at important State capitals to book Advertisement business. The Advertisement Manager at the Headquarters, who is also called Public Relations Officer, has to appoint a team of enthusiastic personnel to meet clients and book business and particularly to keep liaison with the advertising agencies through which most of the big firms issue advertisements. Sometimes the Advertising Manager visits the State Capitals and throws parties to meet the business executives of advertising agencies and big firms.
The Virtues of the Advertisement Manager:
The Advertising Manager of the newspaper must be a keen businessman, well known and popular among high-ups in business and trade. Personality counts greatly in any advertising job.
The Advertising Manager keeps up his publicity of the newspapers itself by means of circulars, brochures, folders, tariff cards, design sets, etc. to prove the efficiency of the newspaper as an advertising medium etc. The quality and the material sent out is itself a model of good printing as the clients who consist mostly of Advertising Agents, Sales Managers and Advertising Managers of big commercial houses and industrial firms are keen to know the modem printing techniques employed by the newspaper. Quite a good percentage is sensitive to the delicacy of printing carried out.
The problems of the advertising department are not confined to selling of the “white space”. Many arise when the space has been sold out. These pertain to allocation of position in the newspaper. Quite often an advertiser wants a specific position on a specific page. Since such a position is popular, many advertisers demand the same position on a same date. This requires consideration of the advertiser whether the advertisements can be fixed elsewhere. One usual way to solve this problem is to charge extra for advertisements seeking specific space/place on specific page.
Generally newspapers have their individual style of advertising make-up. However with more and more readymade stereo advertisements coming in, variations are narrowing down. Also advertising •agencies who usually design the advertisements for different clients have a uniform way of doing the Art Work, though each advertisement may have a separate design. There are some basic styles which come into vogue from time to time. Also there is a lot of imitation involved in art work, which makes many advertisements look similar. However with better payments now available to artists more and more original designs are now created.