Management is concerned with getting things done through the efforts of other. To get the work done through the efforts of others, the management has to undertake a number of activities in a systematic manner. These activities or elements, which every manager has to perform, are known as the functions of management.
Classification of Managerial Functions
There is no unanimity among the management experts about the classification of managerial functions. Different authorities have classified the managerial functions in different ways.
Henry Fayol has classified managerial functions into five. They
1. Planning, including forecasting.
Luther Gullick has classified managerial functions into seven, under the catch word ‘POSDCORB’ which stands for
George R. Terry has classified managerial functions into four. They are :
Koontz and O’Donnell have classified management functions into five. They are:
Having listed the classficiation of management functions made by various authors , we shall attempt the following comprehensive classification of managerial functions.
5. Co-ordinating .
Planning is an intellectual process. It is a continuous and never- ending process. It is performed by managers at all levels.
Planning means deciding in advance what should be done. “It implies decision making as to what to do?, When to do it?, Where to do it?, How to do it?, and how to evaluate the result?” The process of planning includes the determination of organisational objectives, and the formulation of plans, policies, strategies, and programmes, procedures and schedules to achieve the desired organisational objectives.
Organising means bringing together the manpower and other resourses viz., men, money, machinery, materials etc., and putting them into working order for the achievement of objectives laid down in the enterprise. Louis Allen defines organisation as “The process of identifying and grouping the work to be performed, defining and delegating responsibility and authority, and establishing relationship for the purpose of enabling people to work most effectively together in accomplishing objectives”.
The process of organisation involves the following steps:
1. To identify the work to be performed;
2. To classify or group;
3. To assign these groups of activities or work to individuals;
4. To delegate authority and fix responsibility;
5. To establish structural relationships.
This function involves manning the positions created by the organisation process. It is concerned with human resourses of an organisation. According to Koontz and O’Donnell, “The managerial function of staffing involves manning the organisation structure through proper and effective selection, appraisal and development of personnel to fill the roles designated into the structure”. Thus, staffing consists of the following:
1. Man power planning i.e., assessing manpower requirements in terms of quantity;
2. Recruitment, selecting and training;
3. Placement of manpower;
4. Development, promotion, transfer and appraisals;
5. Determinations of employee remuneration.
Directing is concerned with those activities which deal with instructing, influencing, guiding, motivating and supervising the subordinates in their work.
The function of directing involves the following activities:
1. Communication: Communication is the process of passing information from one person to another. It involves systematic telling, listening and understanding.
2. Leadership: Leadership is the process of influencing the behaviour of subordinates, and guiding and leading the subordinates in the proper and systematic performance of work.
3. Motivating: It is the task of inspiring the subordinates to do their work with interest and enthusiasm for the accomplishment of the goals of the organisation.
4. Supervision: Supervision means overseeing the work performance of the subordinates.
An organisation is divided and sub-divided into different segments or sections for the purpose of reaping the benefits of specialisation. Because of the division of activities, it is necessary to synchronize, harmonize or, unify the activities of the various groups of people towards the attainment of the objectives of the enterprise. Co-ordination is the orderly arrangement of group efforts for unifying the actions of the various groups for achieving the common goals of the organisation.
Controlling is concerned with seeing that all activities of the enterprises are being conducted in conformity with the plans. Controlling may be defined as “determining what is being accomplished, that is, evaluating the performance and if necessary, applying corrective measures so that the performance takes place according to plans”.
The process of controlling involves the following steps:
1. Establishing standards of performance;
2. Measuring actual performance with the standard;
3. Comparing the actual performance with the standard;
4. Finding the variances or deviations, if any, and
5. Taking corrective actions or measures.