Quality of Work Life (QWL) has been defined as the quality of relationship between employees and the total work environment. As employees spend most of the time at their work place, so it should yield greater job satisfaction for them by making them eager to come to work every day.

Walton defines QWL as – “a process by which an organization responds to employee needs for developing mechanisms to allow them to share fully in making decisions that design their lives at work.”

Learn about:

1. Meaning and Definitions of Quality of Work Life 2. History of Quality of Work Life 3. Concept 4. Scope 5. Aspects 6. Areas 7. Impact of QWL on Organisational


8. Climate 9. Requirements or Pre-Conditions for Success of QWL 10. Issues Involved in QWL 11. Obstacles to QWL Programme 12. Improvement of QWL 13. Measures to Improve QWL.

Quality of Work Life: Meaning, Definitions, Scope, Concept, Aspects, Obstacles, Measures and Requirements


  1. Meaning and Definitions of Quality of Work Life
  2. History of Quality of Work Life
  3. Concept of Quality of Work Life
  4. Scope of Quality of Work Life
  5. Aspects of Quality of Work Life
  6. Areas of Quality of Work-Life
  7. Impact of QWL on Organisational Climate
  8. Requirements or Pre-Conditions for Success of QWL
  9. Issues Involved in QWL
  10. Obstacles to QWL Programme
  11. Improvement of QWL
  12. Measures to Improve QWL

Quality of Work Life – Meaning and Definitions

The term ‘Quality of Working Life’ has different meanings to different people. Some think of it as a happiness programme. Others especially the labour unions feel that it is a subtle employee incentive or just another productivity device. Terms like “work improvement”, “worker’s participation” “work humanization”, “industrial democracy” and “job enrichment” have been widely used to mean QWL.

QWL is considered much concern today about the decent wages, convenient working hours, conducive working conditions, etc. The term “Quality of Work life” has appeared in research journals and press in USA only in 1970s. There is no generally acceptable definition about this torn. However some attempts were made to describe the term ‘quality of work life’. It refers to the favourableness or unfavourableness of a job environment for people.


Some of the management experts have defined QWL as under:

“It is the degree to which members of a work organisation are able to satisfy important personnel through their experience in the organisation”. (J. Richard and J. Loy)

“It is a process by which all members of the organisation, through appropriate channels of communication, have something to say about the design of their jobs in particular and the work environment in general”. (Glaser)

“It is more than simply a concept, means or an end. It embodies the following inter-related sets of ideas”. (Johnson, Alexander and Robin) –


(i) Ideas dealing with a body of knowledge, concepts, experiences related to the nature, meaning and structure of work.

(ii) Ideas dealing with the nature and process of introducing and managing organisational change.

(iii) Ideas dealing with outcomes or results of the change process.

Richard E. Welton explains quality of work life in terms of eight broad conditions of employment that constitutes desirable quality of work file. He proposed the same criteria for measuring QWL.


Those condition criteria include:

(i) Opportunity to use and develop human capacities.

(ii) Safe and healthy working condition.

(iii) Adequate and fair compensation.


(iv) Opportunity for career growth.

(v) Constitutionalism in the work organisation.

(vi) Social integration in the workforce.

(vii)Social relevance of work.


(viii) Work and quality of life.

Quality of Work Life – History

Concern with life on the job is not recent origin. There are a number of schools of thought about enhancing life in the workplace. Starting with the ‘human relations’ management of Mayo and McGregor, the job enrichment of Herzberg, the socio-technical system of Thorsrud and Davis and finally the general catch all term – ‘Quality of working life”.

The labour of union activities in the 1930s and 1940s through collective bargaining and legislation led to improved conditions. The 1950s and the1960s saw the development of different theories by psychologists proposing a positive relationship between morale and productivity and the possibility that improved human relations would lead to the enhancement schemes also were introduced that includes the values which were at the heart of earlier reform movements and human needs and aspirations.

The theories of motivation and leadership provided a sound base for concept of QWL. Maslow depicted the complexity of human nature by describing various levels of human needs and satisfaction. Herzberg went a step further and distinguished ‘hygiene factors’, which maintain a reasonable level of motivation and the motivational factor which can improve employee performance.

McGregor in his ‘Theory Y’ assumed that under proper condition, people have the potential to work with responsibility.

To accommodate these changing values and attitudes of the workers many companies in the United States have launched QWL experiments of projects. Since World War n there has been widespread development of QWL or worker’s participation projects in Europe. These have ranged from a fairly limited degree of workers involvement in France to an equal voice for employees on boards of directors in West Germany, Norway and Sweden right up to full workers’ control in Yugoslavia.

European industrial firms which have implemented some form of QWL projects include Volvo, Shell, Philips (Holland), Alivtti and Flat (Italy). In Canada a number of QWL experiments had been carried out in some Canadian firms such as – Kootenay, Forest products and shell, Canada. In Japan QWL projects and experiments are more widespread because of historical and cultural factors.

Japanese firms are well known for their paternalistic approach to management. QWL experiments all manifestations of this approach. Japanese companies with QWL experiments include Mitsubishi Electric, Sony, Fuji Film, Nippon Kayakuk and Tenmaya Department Stores.

In other countries efforts are being made to improve the quality of working life of the employees. However progress has been slow in this direction.

Several reasons account for this:

(a) Lack of understanding of the concept by workers and managers.

(b) Inadequate support from top management. Management still believe they a louder voice overall matters and have the right to make decisions affecting workers down in line, although there has been some compromise.

Quality of Work Life – Concept

In the developmental process, the term QWL has acquired many different concepts.

Different concepts of Quality of work life are as under:

First Concept – 1969-1972, QWL = Variable

Second Concept – 1969-1975, QWL = Approach

Third Concept – 1972-1975 QWL = Methods

Fourth Concept – 1975-1980, QWL = Movement

Fifth Concept – Since 1980, QWL = Everything

Richard Walton (1979) who had taken up extensive research or Quality of work life can be considered as the major contributor to this concept. The six psychological requirements of people which were advocated by Emery (1969) should be taken care of while designing the Organisation.

These factors are:

1. The need for variety of job contents.

2. The need for being able to learn on – the – job and to go on learning.

3. The need for some minimal area of decision-making that the individual can call his own.

4. The need for some minimal degree of social support and recognition in work place.

5. The need for individual to be able to reliable what he does and what he produces to his said life.

6. The need to feel that the job leads to some sort of desirable future.

The management in every organisation should sincerely invite their employees to suggest ways to improve their operations and the quality of their work life, only if these ideas are received in a spirit of appreciation. The employees should then he asked to participate in studying the feasibility and recommend appropriate means of implementing each suggestion that survives such review.

The quality of life at work probably would then be enhanced. A management practice that manifests concern about job enrichment, employee security, career opportunities and the opportunities for employees to have a say in matters which affect them, is entirely consistent with meticulously controlled operations in the interest of efficiency, effectiveness, quality assurance, customer service, profitability and high employee morale.

The concept of quality of work life is to create a climate at the workplace so that human – technological – organisational interface leads to a better quality of work life. Climate is a set of attributes specific to a particular organisation that may be judged from the way the organisation deals with its members. There are a number of factors involved in QWL, and these factors can be grouped in three categories – individual factors, job factors, and organisational factors.

The characteristics of these factors affect the individual involvement in the job, his sense of competence which lead to job satisfaction and finally to job performance and productivity. An individual in the organisation wants to satisfy his needs while working. Depending on the nature of the individual, he may want equitable financial package, employment benefits, job security, and interesting work, involvement in decision-making process affecting him and his work, and getting proper feedback about his performance.

If these factors are favourable, the individual will feel job involvement and sense of competence, consequently job satisfaction and contribute positively. Therefore, in improving QWL, all these factors have to be taken into account though all these may not be universally relevant.

Quality of Work Life – Scope

Work plays a central role in the life of the worker engaged in a productive organisation. It has an important impact on – (a) shaping his personality, (b) determining his performance, (c) commitment to fellow employees, and (d) commitment to the organisation and the society.

The workers expect the following needs to be fulfilled by their organisations:

(i) Fair and Reasonable Pay – QWL is basically built around the concept of equitable pay. The employees must be paid their due share in the progress and prosperity of the firm. ++6666666Compensation has got twin objectives, firstly, it should create a favourable environment whereby the organisation utilises the human resources to the maximum extent. Secondly, the compensation should help the employee to maintain, himself and his family with a standard in the society.

(ii) Favourable and Safer Environment – According to Walton, QWL provides for a work environment absolutely free from various hazards arising out of natural and unnatural things. He further emphasises the need for reasonable hours of work, favourable physical conditions of work, age restrictions, etc., to be followed by the organisations. In India, we have the Factories Act, 1948 and several other labour laws which provide the various rules and regulations of protecting the workers from the health hazards at the place of work.

(iii) Employment Benefits – Workers have raised their expectations over the years and now feel entitled to benefits that were once considered a part of the bargaining process. They want a share in the profits of the organisation in addition to medical, housing and welfare facilities.

(iv) Job Security – Employees want stability of employment. They do not like to be the victims of whimsical personnel policies of employers. The workplace should offer security of employment. Layoffs and retrenchment are opposed tooth and nail by all categories of employees these days.

(v) Job Satisfaction – The workers are living beings. They want to work on the jobs that will utilise their talents and thus satisfy them. The management must enrich the jobs and redesign the jobs in such a manner that workers feel satisfied.

(vi) Provisions of Autonomy as well as Control for Developing Human Resource – As the nature of work has become highly monotonous, today the worker becomes more mechanical towards the machines and lacks controls on them. According to Walton, when sufficient autonomy as well as control is given to workers, who in turn will use their innate skills and abilities for developing the organisations, it will lead to improvement of QWL in the organisation.

(vii) Scope for Better Career Opportunities – Now-a-days, workers are not only concerned with their pay prospects, but also the scope for improving their technical and academic skills. Therefore, it becomes imperative on the part of the management to provide facilities for improving such skills. The management should always think of utilising the existing human resources for expansion and development of the organisation.

Quality of Work Life – 5 Important Aspects:

Providing quality work life involves taking care of the following aspects:

1. Occupational Health Care:

The safe work environment provides the basis for the person to enjoy working. The work should not pose a health hazard for the person. The employer and employee, aware of their risks and rights, could achieve a lot in their mutually beneficial dialogue.

2. Suitable Working Time:

Organizations are offering flexible work options to their employees wherein employees enjoy flexi-timings for dedicating their efforts at work.

3. Appropriate Salary:

The appropriate as well as attractive salary has always been an important factor in retaining employees. Providing employees salary at par with the other counterparts of above that what competitors are paying motivates them to stick with the company for long.

QWL consists of opportunities for active involvement in group working arrangements or problem solving that are of mutual benefit to employees or employers, based on labour management cooperation. People also conceive of QWL as a set of methods, such as autonomous work groups, job enrichment, and high- involvement aimed at boosting the satisfaction and productivity of workers. It requires employee commitment to the organization and an environment in which this commitment can flourish.

Providing quality at work not only reduces attrition but also helps in reduced absenteeism and improved job satisfaction. Not only does QWL contribute to a company’s ability to recruit quality people, but also it enhances a company’s competitiveness. Common beliefs support the contention that QWL will positively nurture a more flexible, loyal, and motivated workforce, which are essential in determining the company’s competitiveness.

4. Support:

Lack of support from management can sometimes serve as a reason for employee retention. Supervisor should support his subordinates in a way so that each one of them is a success. Management should try to focus on its employees and support them not only in their difficult times at work but also through the times of personal crisis. Management can support employees by providing them recognition and appreciation.

5. Feedback:

Managers can also provide valuable feedback to employees and make them feel valued to the organization. The feedback from supervisor helps the employee to feel more responsible, confident and empowered. Top management can also support its employees in their personal crisis by providing personal loans during emergencies, childcare services, employee assistance programs, counseling services, et al. Employers can also support their employees by creating an environment of trust and inculcating the organizational values into employees.

Thus employers can support their employees in a number of ways as follows:

i. By providing feedback

ii. By giving recognition and rewards

iii. By counseling them

iv. By providing emotional support.

Quality of Work Life – 8 Major Areas of Quality of Work-Life

1. Compensation – The reward for work should be above a minimum standard for life and should also be equitable.

2. Health and Safety – The working environment should reduce the adverse effects of pollution that can adversely affect the physical, mental and emotional state of employees.

3. Job Security – Employees should not have to work under a constant concern for their future stability of work and income.

4. Job Design – The design of jobs should be capable of meeting the needs of the organisation for production and the individual for satisfying and interesting work.

5. Social Integration – The elimination of anything that could lead to individuals not identifying with the groups to which they belong. This includes the elimination of discrimination and individualism, whilst encouraging teams and social groups to form.

6. Protection of Individual Rights -The introduction of specific procedures aimed at guaranteeing the rights of employees at work.

7. Social Relevance of Work – Initiative to increase the understanding among employees of the objectives of the organisation and the importance of their part in them.

8. Respect for Non-Work Activities – Respect for the activities that people engage in outside the workplace. The impact of work activities on private life should also be recognised.

Quality of Work Life – Impact of QWL on Organisational Climate

One of the major problems facing the developing and the developed countries is the quality of working life of a vast majority of employees engaged in productive pursuits. This issue is not just one of achieving greater human satisfaction but it also aims at improving productivity, adaptability and overall effectiveness of organisations. The quality of working life movement in a broader sense seeks to achieve integration among the technological, human, organisational and society demands which are often contradictory and conflicting.

QWL is more concerned with the overall climate of work and the impact that the work has on people as well as on organisational effectiveness. The participation of employees in problem-solving and decision-making particularly in areas related to their work is considered to be a necessary condition for providing greater autonomy and opportunity for self-direction and self-control to workers with the ultimate objective of upgrading the quality of life at work. The recognised purpose is to change the climate at work so that the human-technological-organisational interface leads to a better quality of work life and eventually to an improved quality of life in community and society.

By and large, work redesign is a powerful instrument of cultural and attitudinal change. Certain values, attitudes and cultural attributes acquired in the new work system can manifest themselves in the socio-cultural and political system as well. For instance, the bureaucratic form of work organisation reinforces the authoritarianism of traditional society, the redesigned work system based on participative principles will tend to foster democratic values in the society at large.

It is essential to teach new values and attitudes at the work place. It is also necessary to design systems which will sustain and strengthen the predominant patterns of behaviour that already exist in a given culture. Thus, in case of India, proposed alternative form of work organisation with semi-autonomous groups as unit should be more geared towards incorporating the main orientations of people as also some of the characteristics of socio-cultural conditions obtaining today.

The quality of working life movement, in the Indian context, is confined to the organised sectors of industry and government, which constitute very small percentage of the total working population. This will not be able to contribute towards its ultimate goal of enhancing the quality of life of people in general. Therefore, steps need to be taken to broaden its framework so as to encompass the vast majority of men and women who either work in unorganised sectors or as agricultural labour in rural areas and to whom even some of the basic rights have been denied.

Quality of Work Life – 8 Important Requirements or Pre-Conditions for Success of QWL

Several QWL improvement experiments have failed for various reasons.

Companies interested in undertaking such a programme should keep in mind the following conditions that are essential for successful results:

(i) Management must be committed to an open and transparent style of operation that includes sharing appropriate information with employees and sincerely inviting their input regarding problems, opportunities and implementation of improvement plans.

(ii) Employees must be given opportunities for advancement in the organisation.

(iii) Supervisors must be trained to function effectively in a less directive, more collaborative style.

(iv) Traditional status barriers between management and workforce must be broken to permit establishment of an atmosphere of trust and open communication.

(v) Employees should receive feedback on results achieved and recognition for superior performance. Other forms of positive reinforcements such as financial incentives, should also be made available where feasible.

(vi) Personnel should be selected and/or promoted for excellence in their performance.

(vii) Both positive and negative outcomes of the QWL improvement programme should be analysed and evaluated and these results should be used to work towards continuous improvement of the human resource system.

(viii) There is a continuous need of research on quality of working life improvement. Such research efforts should provide for systematic, assessment of a reasonably broad spectrum of QWL improvement programme evaluation of alternative QWL models.

Quality of Work Life – Issues Involved in QWL

Welton provides eight conceptual categories for analyzing the features of QWL. They are -“adequate and fair compensation, safe and healthy working conditions, immediate opportunity to use and develop human capacities, future opportunity for continued growth and security, constitutionalism in the organisational work and the total life space and the social relevance of work life”.

The International Labour Organisation lists the following areas as concerns of QWL:

(a) Hours of Work and Arrangements of Working Time.

(b) Work organisation and job contents.

(c) Impact of New Technologies on Working Conditions.

(d) Working Conditions of Woman Young Workers, Older Workers and Other Special Categories.

(e) Work Related Welfare Services and Facilities.

(f) Shop Floor Participation in the Improvement of Working Conditions. Klott, Mundick and Schuster suggested 11 major QWL issues.

They are:

(a) Pay and Stability of Employment.

(b) Organisational Health Programmes.

(c) Alternative Work Schedules.

(d) Participative Management and Control of Work.

(e) Recognition.

(f) Congenial Worker-supervisor Relations.

(g) Grievance Procedure.

(h) Adequacy of Resources.

(i) Seniority and Merit in Promotions.

(j) Employment on Permanent Basis.

Quality of Work Life – Obstacles: According to Bohlander

Quality work life suffers from barriers like any other new schemes. Management, employees and unions fear the effect of unknown change. All these parties feel that the benefits of this concept are few though they are convinced about its effect on personnel management as a whole and on the individual parties separately. Management should develop strategies to improve quality of work life in view of the barriers.

Bohlander has identified three common problems of implementing QWL programmes.

The areas are:

(a) Managerial Attitudes.

(b) Union Influence.

(c) The Restrictiveness of Industrial Engineering.

(a) Managerial Attitude:

Traditional managers may perceive this phenomenon as a challenge to their right to control and to make decisions which influence worker’s work and environment. They may not be willing to delegate decision making to the rank and file level.

Managers who hold theory X assumptions and believe that employees are inherently lazy, lack responsibility and requires lose supervision, are likely to resist any attempt towards QWL programmes. Such managers will set objectives for subordinates and will limit employee participation.

A change in managerial attitudes at all level is important in order that any QWL programme can be successful.

(b) Union Influence:

Union leaders often believe that QWL projects are management’s tools to improve productivity or to speed up work performance in order to extract more work from workers without corresponding compensation.

(c) Restrictiveness of Industrial Engineering:

Principles of industrial engineering tend to conflict with QWL programmes. Industrial engineering, stress on task design and specialisation with minimal contribution by employees, while QWL efforts involve job changes to encourage worker initiative and judgement. This conflict may be resolved through careful planning of new plant, space layout and equipment placement.

Quality of Work Life – Improvement: 9 Steps to be Taken for Improving QWL

To be successful, QWL schemes require the support and encouragement of all levels of management. The personnel department is expected to perform a far reaching role in many QWL projects.

For improving QWL following steps must be taken:

(a) Top Management Commitment.

(b) Formation of Autonomous Work Groups.

(c) Provide Effective Leadership.

(d) Provision for Career Development.

(e) Enriching the Jobs.

(f) Job Security

(g) Workers Participation in Management.

(h) Principles of Justice, Fair and Equity.

(i) Adequate Training of People.

Quality of Work Life – 15 Measures to Improve QWL:

Measure # 1. Job Rotation:

It is nothing but moving employees among the jobs. Doing different jobs and learning new skills eliminate monotony. It fosters multi-skills. For example, being a switch board operator, lift operator and the like are boring. Instead assigning one person to each job for a long period, he can be moved to different jobs. An employee can be a switch board operator for 2 hours of a day and then he can be transferred to an equivalent job during the post noon session.

Job Rotation and Stress Management:

It can be used for beating stress by incorporating alternating or contrasting task. It is more stressful to perform one task requiring a large amount of physical activity followed by another highly physical activity. First, tasks should be divided into physical and mental activity. Then, the jobholder doing high physical activity may be rotated to less physical activity-involved job. Similarly, high mental activity involved jobs may be contrasted with less mental concentration – demanding job. Thus, stress and boredom can be eliminated.


i. Job of medical transcription may be constrained with filing case sheets or transporting the patient in the hospital setup.

ii. In an auto repair shop, the job involving booking complaints and releasing repaired vehicles may be contrasted with actual vehicle repairing job.

iii. In a hotel, check-in clerk might rotate with the attenders.

Merits of Job Rotation:

The following are the merits of job rotation:

i. Employees are cross skilled and cross trained.

ii. Being skilled and cross functional helps in beating employee attrition.

iii. It increases the value of employee in the job market.

iv. Boredom and monotony are replaced with job satisfaction and high morale.

v. Employees can get more pay for skill addition.

vi. Improved understanding of the entire productive process by cross trained employees can increase the quality of the product and decrease the defect rate.

Measure # 2. Job Enrichment:

It involves modification of jobs in such a way that they appeal more to the employee’s high order needs. In other words, it means adding depth to the job. For example, the job of a production worker in an electronic industry involves assembling a circuit board. After assembly, the board is sent to tester and then it is sent to a third person for being assembled into other board.

In this case, it is better to train the production worker to test the boards and then to assemble the item with the other board. Of course, the difficulty level of job has increased rather than increasing the number of tasks (Job enlargement). The production worker is not thrown into difficult jobs but is expected to learn the job on his own. The worker is given training needed to perform the new job. Similarly the job of a tester can be enhanced by assembling boards besides testing. As a result, there is no separate job of tester which can be eliminated.

Measure # 3. Job Enlargement:

It involves adding new tasks to the existing job. In other words, adding tasks requiring similar efforts to the existing job is called job enlargement. For example, there are three workers in a mortgage brokerage company, one verifying the credit history of the applicant, another verifying the employment data and the last one verifying assets and cash balance. In this example, job enlargement consists of having each worker do all the three distinct works instead of each worker limiting himself/herself to one aspect of work. This would give them a satisfaction of doing the whole work.

Measure # 4. Feedback and Reinforcement:

Positive feedback and positive reinforcement can increase QWL. There should be a system to give quick feedback. For example, where a manager witnesses a worker going beyond his call of duty to assist a co-worker or a client, it is best to give feedback immediately. There is no point in expressing a positive feedback belatedly. When a manager observers his subordinate doing excellent work, he should acknowledge it by verbal appreciation, cash reward, nod, showing thumps up gestures, etc. These have potential to improve the quality of performance.

Measure # 5. Child and Elder Care:

Establishment of onsite child care and elder care facilities, financial aid for child care, maternity/paternity leave for expectant mother, flexible work hours to take care of sick child can check absenteeism, lateness, reduced turnover and poor morale thereby enhancing QWL.

Measure # 6. Empowerment:

Empowerment is providing employees with higher degree of involvement and greater authority to make decisions on their own. Participative committees, suggestion scheme, kaizen management, delegation of authority, autonomous work groups, quality circles, etc., are some of the tools of empowerment. It is undoubtedly revolutionizing the work life of employees.

Measure # 7. Change in Work Environment:

Creation of small teams with inspirational leadership tends to improve work standards. Many prefer team work as it provides for a variety of tasks as compared to repetitive jobs in assembly line. The employees in teams can interact with one another and thereby increase their social contact. This increases employee morale. Similarly background music, regular rest breaks, voluntary exercise break, etc., may have a beneficial effect on productivity.

Measure # 8. Ergonomic Changes:

Science of ergonomics is receiving more attention with the increasing application of computers and much emphasis on worker’s safety. This science seeks to improve human machine interface. In other words, computer monitors, keyboards, office appliances, chairs, desks lighting, ventilation etc., are redesigned so as to reduce the job related stress to increase employee safety and to break the monotony.

Measure # 9. Wellness Programme:

Physically fit employees generally have a better attitude towards their jobs, are more productive, have lower absent rate, are in control of their weight, experience less stress and suffer lower heart disease [Robert Maynard (1997)]. Therefore most organizations have put in place gyms, meditation centers, periodical medical checkup facility, etc. They also give incentive for weight reduction and supply nutritious food at the canteen. These are some of the measures to improve the health of employees.

Measure # 10. Aesthetics and Personalization:

An aesthetic work environment, art work, pictures, murals, motifs, sculpture, outdoor landscaping in the front and back of the office and use of different colours to elevate the mood of the employees, attractive interior decorations, etc., are leaving a telling effect on the moods of employees.

Measure # 11. Alternative Work Methods:

Flexi time gives freedom to workers to choose their own working hours within limit, with an advance notice to the employer. However, it is not practical to allow flextime in a situation where the workflow is continuous. In other words, interdependent jobs are not compatible for flexi hours.

Flexi place allows workers to work at home instead of working only at the plant or at the office premises. The personal computer, internet, advance communication technologies make working partly at home and partly at office a reality.

Measure # 12. Flex Benefits:

Employees can choose a benefit programme of their choice out of many different blends of benefits. This will enhance QWL.

Measure # 13. Compressed Work Week:

It means compressing the working hours assigned for a week into a few days of a week or compressing a fortnight work allotment into a certain number of days of choice. For example, 48 hours’ work load scheduled for 6 days can be done in 5 days.

Measure # 14. Job Sharing:

Two workers divide one full-time job. It is practised at clerical level.

Measure # 15. Other Measures:

Institutionalizing an effective grievance redressal system, a sound promotion system, rewarding and awarding exceptional talents, harmonious superior-subordinate relation and so on can better the life of the employees in a work environment.