Job design is a process that integrates work contents (tasks, functions, relationship) the rewards (extrinsic and intrinsic) and the qualification required (skill, knowledge, abilities) for each job in a way that meets the needs of employees and organizations.
Job design can be described as a deliberate attempt to structure the technical aspects of work and it encompasses the organising components of the tasks to be performed as well as the interaction patterns among the work-group members in order to get the job done properly and effectively.
Learn about:- 1. Meaning of Job Design 2. Objectives of Job Design 3. Importance 4. Processes 5. Methods 6. Characteristics Model 7. Factors 8. Approaches 9. Benefits.
Job Design: Meaning, Objectives, Importance, Processes, Methods, Approaches, Benefits and Characteristics Models
- Meaning of Job Design
- Objectives of Job Design
- Importance of Job Design
- Job Design Processes
- Methods of Job Design
- Characteristics Model of Job Design
- Factors Affecting Job Design
- Approaches to Job Design
- Benefits of Job Design
Job Design – Meaning
Job design means to decide the contents of a job. It fixes the duties and responsibilities of the job, the methods of doing the job and the relationships between the job holder (manager) and his superiors, subordinates and colleagues.
A job design is the division of the total task to be performed into the manageable and efficient units, e.g., positions, departments and divisions and it is done to provide for their proper integration. Actually, it is the sub-division of total work which can be either in horizontal scale or vertical scale.
When sub-division is done on a vertical scale, authorities at the higher levels of the organisation are entrusted the responsibilities of supervising more people or employees in the organisation. They are also responsible for co-ordination of sub-groups, planning etc. When the sub-division of work is done on a horizontal scale, different tasks across the organisation are performed by different people.
A job design can be described as a deliberate attempt to structure the technical aspects of work and it encompasses the organising components of the tasks to be performed as well as the interaction patterns among the work-group members in order to get the job done properly and effectively.
The important objectives of the job design process are motivation and maximum operational efficiency, satisfaction of employees and creating suitable atmosphere to get the job done successfully.
Employees’ work performance has a considerable influence on the productivity and their job satisfaction. Productivity and job satisfaction depend on how and where the work is performed, method and technique adopted to perform the work and type of the work performed. Job design is mainly concerned with job content, technique and method to be followed and creating the link between job requirement and human attribution.
In the words of Mathis and Jackson, “job design is a process that integrates work contents (tasks, functions, relationship) the rewards (extrinsic and intrinsic) and the qualification required (skill, knowledge, abilities) for each job in a way that meets the needs of employees and organizations”.
Thus, job design focuses on quantum of work to be done by the employees, their feeling about the job & authority possessed by them in relation to performance of the task and decision making.
Once the job analysis has been conducted and the organisation has clearly defined job descriptions and job specifications; this information is then used by the organisation for designing or redesigning the job. Giving a logical sequence to the job analysis is called Job Design. It includes the conscious efforts for organising the tasks, duties, and responsibilities into a unit of work for the achievement of certain objectives.
It is the division of the total task to be performed into the manageable and efficient units — positions, departments and divisions— and to provide for their proper integration. The subdivision of work is both on the horizontal scale with different tasks across the organisation being performed by different people and on the vertical scale, in which the higher level of the organisation is responsible for the supervision of subgroups, more complex planning, etc.
“Job design is the deliberate and systematic attempt to structure the technical and social aspect of the work so as to improve technical efficiency and job satisfaction.”
“Job designing is the process which integrates work content (tasks, function, relationships), the reward (intrinsic and extrinsic) and the qualification required (skills, knowledge, abilities) for each job in a way that meet the needs of the employees and the organisation.”
The very concept of job design is in two parts, viz., content and method. In other words they satisfy technical, organisational, social, psychological and personal requirements. Therefore it mainly deals with how the job is to be executed coupled with job satisfaction of the employees.
Thus, taking into consideration their skill, growth and happiness. In our country job design concept was developed into functional specialisation through economy of cost of production and manufacturing organisation to have benefits of such specialisation.
a) Uniform quality control in production.
b) Speedy manufacturing process.
c) Maximum standard of employees’ skill along with practically lessor area of specialisation.
d) Simple parts to be produced by low income employees with comparatively lesser professional skills. Employees with higher income, higher skills not to be engaged on very easy tasks, so as to avoid waste of man-hours and money.
e) Cost effective training to be introduced to new workers by giving training to them in the area of specialisation by well qualified supervisors to guide the workers during their duty hours within the area of their specialisation.
This idea was popularised by F.W. Taylor, who introduced the famous movement of scientific management in the 20th Century and has said that Job design is the process of how the job is to be done; the specific task to be performed. Also the procedure used in carrying out the tasks and the job relates to other works in the organisation.
For the past many years the important approach to job design has become the ‘Job characteristics theory’. This theory was evolved by Hackman and Oldham. According to this theory any job can be discussed in five important dimensions.
Repetitive and dull jobs that are poorly designed lead to employee dissatisfaction, lower productivity, absenteeism, boredom, insecurity and related issues. A good job design aims to solve this problem by structuring jobs in a way that adds meaning to them so that employees derive maximum job satisfaction from them.
The main objectives of job design are:
1. To increase productivity and technical efficiency of employees.
2. To design a job that is psychologically satisfying to the employees.
3. To align the needs of the individual employees with the organizational requirements.
4. To meet the basic requirements of the organisation including high productivity, technical efficiency and quality of work.
5. To satisfy the needs of the individual employees including job satisfaction in terms of interest, challenge and achievement.
6. To integrate the needs of the individual with the requirements of the organisation.
Job Design – Importance
Job design is a very important in human resource management. If the jobs are designed properly, then highly efficient managers will join the organisation. They will be motivated to improve the productivity and profitability of the organisation. However, if the jobs are designed badly, then it will result in absenteeism, high labour turnover, conflicts, and other labour problems.
Well designed and clearly defined job roles are critical for successful:
1. Job evaluation – Information about the design of the job is needed for job evaluation, which is the process of comparing the job with other jobs in an organisation to determine the appropriate grade.
2. Recruitment and selection – The process gives you a better understanding about the job that needs to be filled and helps –
i. The selection panel identifies the job requirements (selection criteria), write the job advertisement, develop interview questions, and assess the best applicant for the job
ii. Job applicants to decide if they should apply for the job and to prepare for the selection process.
3. Career planning and development – The information helps employees to understand the requirements of their role, gain insight into the requirements of other roles in the organisation and identify the capabilities needed for their chosen career paths.
4. Performance management – Clearly defined roles allow managers and staff to develop shared understanding of work performance expectations. Capability benchmarks help them identify and meet their professional development needs.
5. Reward and recognition – Clearly defined capability benchmarks make it easier to recognise work performance which is above expectations.
6. Workforce planning – When aggregated, all the individual roles in the organisation should meet the organisation’s capability needs.
7. Work allocation planning – Managers can ensure that the work relates to the organisation’s core business and is correctly allocated.
8. Decisions on training investments – Individual and organisational training are better targeted.
9. Ensuring workforce safety – The information may help identify hazardous conditions, unhealthy environments or unsafe work practices/processes which need to be addressed. It may also be used to identify return to work solutions as part of a rehabilitation plan.
10. Workforce equity and diversity – The process may also identify ways of improving workforce equity.
Job Design – 2 Main Processes of Job Design
It is the process by which an organisation develops its structure, keeping in mind its goals and objectives. The focus of organisational designing is to align organisational goals with the organisational structure for better implementation of the strategies. The level of complexity in organisational designing differs in each organisation. The organisational design is also changed to adapt to different situations.
Organisational designing can be done in two ways:
1. Differentiation and
Organisations work towards achieving certain goals. These goals are achieved when people perform their jobs in accordance with the set strategy. Differentiation is the process by which various organisational goals are broken into identifiable tasks.
The various dimensions of differentiation are:
i. Horizontal differentiation
ii. Vertical differentiation and
iii. Spatial differentiation
i. Horizontal Differentiation:
Organisations are divided into various sub-units. This division is done on the basis of knowledge, training or on the type of work done by the employees. The extent to which the organisational sub-units differ from each other is called horizontal differentiation.
For example, the nature of work of a software quality testing engineer and a product quality testing engineer in a software and production department differs fundamentally, though both are designated as quality testing engineers. Horizontal differentiation increases with the degree of specialisation.
ii. Vertical Differentiation:
Employees have different degrees of authority and responsibility because of the difference in their positions. Differentiation arising due to the difference in levels or positions of employees is called vertical differentiation. Some organisations have tall structures while others have flat ones. Organisations with tall structures have greater vertical differentiation compared to those with flat ones. Tall structures are more bureaucratic, so the process of decision-making takes more time.
iii. Spatial Differentiation:
When an organisation sets up branches and offices in new areas, the lateral expansion which increases its number of business units is called spatial differentiation. Coca-Cola is an example of a company with vast spatial differentiation.
Organisations usually have various departments and divisions which perform various functions. The extent of co-ordination and collaboration between the divisions or departments or sub-units is called integration.
Integration is of two types:
i. Vertical integration and
ii. Horizontal integration
i. Vertical Integration:
As there are different levels in an organisation, there is a need for coordinating employee activities to achieve organisational goals. This process of coordinating activities of different levels in an organisation is called vertical integration. Organisations use a variety of tools to achieve vertical integration. These are called as vertical linkages. Linkages can be in the form of policies, procedures, rules and regulations which govern the accomplishment of the organisation’s tasks and objectives.
Management Information Systems (MIS), is also a tool for vertical integration. MIS integrates the organisation by facilitating information flow between the various levels. Organisational hierarchies are also manipulated for achieving vertical integration. Organisations having tall structures need more vertical integration than those with flat structures.
ii. Horizontal Integration:
Co-ordination of activities of the same level and within the departments is called horizontal integration. Horizontal integrators include communication tools like telephones, fax, liaison officers, task-forces and cross-functional teams.
In some organisations, a department or person acts as an integrator. In organisations where there are many departments or divisions, there is a greater need for horizontal integration.
Job Design – 4 Important Methods: Job Simplification, Job Enlargement, Job Enrichment and Job Rotation (With Examples)
Some important methods of job design are explained below:
1. Job Simplification
2. Job Enlargement
3. Job Enrichment
4. Job Rotation
Method # 1. Job Simplification:
In this method, jobs are divided into smaller components and subsequently assigned to workers as whole jobs. Work simplification can be introduced when the jobs are not specialised and can be carried out by ordinary workers.
The job of a table cleaner in a restaurant. Many restaurants use job simplification because employees can learn the task rapidly and low skilled and low paid employees can be hired and trained for such jobs. However, workers experience boredom, frustration, lack of satisfaction and motivation in such jobs leading to low productivity.
Method # 2. Job Enlargement:
One of the modern methods of motivating people in organisations is to design jobs according to the principle of job enlargement. It is the practice of expanding the content of a job by increasing the number and variety of tasks performed at the same level. Job enlargement means adding more and different tasks to the job to provide greater variety. It expands the scope of the job as a number of tasks are added to the job.
The expansion of the contents of the job can occur at two different levels, i.e., horizontal loading and vertical loading. Horizontal expansion of job does not increase the responsibilities or complexities in job performance but increase the number of tasks.
(a) An experienced representative may be asked to give field training to new recruits,
(b) A typist may be asked to draft simple routine letters.
Jobs can also be enlarged vertically by expanding skills requirements and assuming greater responsibilities. It involves looking after more complex tasks demanding greater degree of skill.
While enlarging jobs, the needs of the employee have to be considered. Those with strong urge for advancement may be willing to take up additional tasks. Others may not be willing to take up additional work load. Job enlargement is also one of the methods of training employees for future promotions.
Method # 3. Job Enrichment:
Job enrichment means adding duties and responsibilities so that the job becomes more challenging and responsible for the employee. In job enrichment, jobs are enlarged vertically by expanding skills requirements and adding responsibilities. It is based on the assumption that to motivate employees, the job itself must provide opportunities for achievement, recognition, advancement and growth.
HR Manager (Payroll) is given responsibility for retirement funds like PF, Superannuation and Gratuity. Job Enrichment is concerned with designing a job in such a way that it includes greater work content, require a higher level of knowledge and skills, give the worker more autonomy and responsibility for planning, directing and controlling his own performance and provide opportunity for personal and meaningful work experience.
Dimensions of Job Enrichment:
(a) Autonomy/Freedom – Once the job is assigned to an employee, he should be given freedom regarding the operations and completion of the job. The employee feels that the company trusts him and he is responsible for the success of the work.
(b) Task significance – When the employee is given the responsibility to complete the task fully, he feels that he is doing an important job that is useful to the company.
(c) Task identity – Normally, in a production unit, each employee is responsible for fabricating only one part of a product. If he is involved in fabricating the whole product, he will feel more responsible and identify himself with the task of fabricating the whole product.
(d) Tasks Variety – By increasing the number and variety of tasks performed, the job will become more interesting and challenging.
(e) Feedback – The employees should receive regular feed as to how they are progressing in the enriched jobs assigned to them and corrective actions, if any required.
Techniques of Job Enrichment:
There is no one way of enriching a job.
The following techniques or combination of techniques could be followed:
(a) Increasing the responsibility of individual employee for their own work.
(b) Allowing employees to set targets and standards of performance.
(c) Introduce new and more difficult task not previously handled.
(d) Remove, some controls from above, while ensuring that individuals or groups are clearly accountable for achieving defined targets or standards.
(e) Give employee more scope to vary the methods, sequence and pace of their work.
(f) Encourage participation of employees in planning work, innovating new techniques and reviewing results.
(g) Assign individuals or groups specific projects which give them more responsibility and help them to increase their expertise.
Steps in Job Enrichment:
(a) Select those projects which permit close relation between motivation and job performance.
(b) Set up a pilot scheme before launching a full programme on job enrichment.
(c) Discuss and prepare a list of changes that may enrich the jobs.
(d) Screen the list and focus on motivation factors such as achievement, responsibility and self-control.
(e) Provide adequate training and guidance.
(f) Set precise objectives and criteria for measuring success and a timetable for each project.
Benefits of Job Enrichment:
(a) It is beneficial both to the employee and the management in terms of involvement, motivation job satisfaction and better performance.
(b) Motivates employees to perform better.
(c) Provide opportunities for achievement, recognition, advancement and growth of employees.
Limitations of Job Enrichment:
(a) A large number of workers are satisfied with the present job and do not want change in job contents.
(b) Job enrichment is basically limited to low level factory employees and clerical staff. Skilled workers, professionals and managers are interested in taking up challenging jobs and they can be enriched by modern management techniques.
(c) There is a tendency on the part of the management to impose job enrichment on employees without discussing the same with them.
(d) There may be opposition from the union.
Method # 4. Job Rotation:
Job rotation refers to the movement of an employee from one job to another job. The jobs are not changed, only the employees are rotated among various jobs. It refers to the movement of employee from one job to another job and from one plant to another plant on planned basis for learning purposes or on situational basis to meet the needs of the organisation.
An employee who works on a particular job moves to work on another job for a few days to months and returns to back to the first job. This method relieves the employee from monotony and increases his skills for personal growth.
The management trainees are rotated over various jobs in a department, division or unit before they are posted as managers. It also includes moving people between line and staff functions. Job rotation may be horizontal or vertical and is carried out on a planned basis whereby the employee spend two/three months in an activity and then moves on or on situational basis to meet the requirements of the organisation.
Benefits of Job Rotation:
(a) The employee develops knowledge and skills by doing different jobs and it helps him in personal growth.
(b) The employee can do more than one job and it benefits the organisation.
(c) Reduces monotony/boredom.
(d) It improves co-operation and understanding between employees and departments.
(e) Job rotation can be used to motivate employees.
(f) Job rotation is one of the important methods of management development. Many companies recruit young graduates/MBAs as Management Trainees and they work in different departments such as production, distribution, sales, marketing, etc., for a period of 1-2 years to get an understanding of the business and how different departments work to achieve the goals of the organisation. Subsequently, they are confirmed in service in managerial positions. Similarly, promising executives and managers are rotated in different jobs before they are promoted.
Limitations of Job Rotation:
a. Many employees are comfortable in doing the current job and they are not interested taking up new jobs.
b. The employee may take some time to settle down in the new job and it affects the work and increases the cost to the company.
It has been observed that teamwork produces better results than performance by individual work. Team analysis rather than job analysis has assumed importance since modern practices such as Supply Chain Management, ERP require teamwork. Team analysis includes statement of duties and responsibilities of a team and minimum qualities and qualifications necessary to perform the activities of the team.
There are several types of team and a few examples are given below:
(a) Cross-functional Team consists of specialists in different functions such sales, marketing, finance, HR, IT, etc., working together to achieve common objectives.
(b) Self-directed Teams include highly trained individuals doing a set of interdependent job tasks within a natural work unit.
(c) Task Force is formed to solve a problem immediately.
(d) High Performance Team has clearly defined performance objectives, right mix of skills and creativity and they outperform the expectations of the management. Establishing high performance standards, right skills for the team members, availability of facts and information, teamwork and rewarding performance are some of the requirements of high performance team.
Job Design – Job Characteristics Models: 5 Core Job Dimensions (Described by Hackman and Oldham)
The job characteristics model is one of the most influential attempts to design jobs with increased motivational properties. Proposed by Hackman and Oldham, the model describes five core job dimensions leading to three critical psychological states, resulting in work- related outcomes.
1. Skill variety refers to the extent to which the job requires a person to utilise multiple high-level skills. A car wash employee whose job consists of directing customers into the automated car wash demonstrates low levels of skill variety, whereas a car wash employee who acts as a cashier, maintains carwash equipment, and manages the inventory of chemicals demonstrates high skill variety.
2. Task identity refers to the degree to which a person is in charge of completing an identifiable piece of work from start to finish. A Web designer who designs parts of a Web site will have low task identity, because the work blends in with other Web designers’ work; in the end it will be hard for any one person to claim responsibility for the final output. The Web master who designs an entire Web site will have high task identity.
3. Task significance refers to whether a person’s job substantially affects other people’s work, health, or well-being. A janitor who cleans the floors at an office building may find the job low in significance, thinking it is not a very important job.
However, janitors cleaning the floors at a hospital may see their role as essential in helping patients get better. When they feel that their tasks are significant, employees tend to feel that they are making an impact on their environment, and their feelings of self-worth are boosted.
4. Autonomy is the degree to which a person has the freedom to decide how to perform his or her tasks. As an example, an instructor who is required to follow a predetermined textbook, coveting a given list of topics using a specified list of classroom activities, has low autonomy. On the other hand, an instructor who is free to choose the textbook, design the course content, and use any relevant materials when delivering lectures has higher levels of autonomy.
Autonomy increases motivation at work, but it also has other benefits. Giving employee’s autonomy at work is a key to individual as well as company success, because autonomous employees are free to choose how to do their jobs and therefore can be more effective. They are also less likely to adopt a “this is not my job” approach to their work environment and instead be proactive (do what needs to be done without waiting to be told what to do) and creative.
The consequence of this resourcefulness can be higher company performance. For example, a Cornell University study shows that small businesses that gave employees autonomy grew four times more than those that did not. Giving employees autonomy is also a great way to train them on the job. For example, Gucci’s CEO Robert Polet points to the level of autonomy he was given while working at Unilever PLC as a key to his development of leadership talents. Autonomy can arise from workplace features, such as telecommuting, company structure, organisational climate, and leadership style.
5. Feedback refers to the degree to which people learn how effective they are being at work. Feedback at work may come from other people, such as supervisors, peers, subordinates, and customers, or it may come from the job itself. A salesperson that gives presentations to potential clients but is not informed of the clients’ decisions has low feedback at work. If this person receives notification that a sale was made based on the presentation, feedback will be high.
The relationship between feedback and job performance is more controversial. In other words, just the presence of feedback is not sufficient for employees to feel motivated to perform better. In fact, a review of this literature shows that in about one-third of the cases, feedback was detrimental to performance.
In addition to whether feedback is present, the sign of feedback (positive or negative), whether the person is ready to receive the feedback, and the manner in which feedback was given will all determine whether employees feel motivated or demotivated as a result of feedback.
According to the job characteristics model, the presence of these five core job dimensions leads employees to experience three psychological states. They view their work as meaningful, they feel responsible for the outcomes, and they acquire knowledge of results. These three psychological states in turn are related to positive outcomes such as overall job satisfaction, internal motivation, higher performance, and lower absenteeism and turnover.
Research shows that out of these three psychological states, experienced meaningfulness is the most important for employee attitudes and behaviours, and it is the key mechanism through which the five core job dimensions operate.
Are all five job characteristics equally valuable for employees? Hackman and Oldham’s model proposes that the five characteristics will not have uniform effects. Instead, they proposed the following formula to calculate the motivating potential of a given job –
According to this formula, autonomy and feedback are the more important elements in deciding motivating potential compared to skill variety, task identity, or task significance. Moreover, note how the job characteristics interact with each other in this model. If someone’s job is completely lacking in autonomy (or feedback), regardless of levels of variety, identity, and significance, the motivating potential score will be very low.
Note that the five job characteristics are not objective features of a job. Two employees working in the same job may have very different perceptions regarding how much skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, or feedback the job affords. In other words, motivating potential is in the eye of the beholder. This is both good and bad news. The bad news is that even though a manager may design a job that is supposed to motivate employees, some employees may not find the job to be motivational.
The good news is that sometimes it is possible to increase employee motivation by helping employees change their perspective about the job. For example, employees laying bricks at a construction site may feel their jobs are low in significance, but by pointing out that they are building a home for others, their perceptions about their job may be changed.
Do all employees expect to have a job that has a high motivating potential? Research has shown that the desire for the five core job characteristics is not universal. One factor that affects how much of these characteristics people want or need is growth need strength. Growth need strength describes the degree to which a person has higher order needs, such as self-esteem and self-actualization.
When an employee’s expectation from his job includes such higher order needs, employees will have high-growth need strength, whereas those who expect their job to pay the bills and satisfy more basic needs will have low-growth need strength.
Not surprisingly, research shows that those with high-growth need strength respond more favourably to jobs with a high motivating potential. It also seems that an employee’s career stage influences how important the five dimensions are. For example, when employees are new to an organisation, task significance is a positive influence over job satisfaction, but autonomy may be a negative influence.
Job Design – 3 Major Factors that Affect Job Design: Core Job Characteristics, Individual Factors and Environmental Factors
Job design has emerged as an important application area for work motivation. It can be described as a deliberate attempt to structure the technical and social aspects of work. The philosophy of job design includes elements of specialisation, job enlargement, work simplification, operation analysis and behavioural science. However, job design focuses on the ultimate overall situation surrounding a worker in the job climate or atmosphere.
Job design has significant impact on the quality of work life. It refers to the favorableness or unfavorableness of a job environment for people. The indices for quality of work life are job involvement, job satisfaction, and sense of competence, job performance and productivity. Favourable quality of work life results into positive consequence in these factors.
These are many factors that will affect job design can be grouped into three main categories:
1. Core Job Characteristics:
There are five job characteristics which are central to providing motivation to workers. There are skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback from the job itself.
These five job three psychological states:
(i) Feeling of meaning fullness of the work,
(ii) Feeling responsibility for the work done.
(iii) Knowledge of results of personal performance of the job.
2. Individual Factors:
Individual characteristics determine the extent to which an individual derives satisfaction from a job. There are differences in individuals, different jobs suit to different individuals.
3. Environmental Factors:
A job is performed within the context of environment. The work environment factors may be in the form of technical and social aspects. The technical aspect are the major dominant technology used by the organization and the technology of the job while social aspect includes organizational control system, distribution of power in the organization, reward system and leadership style.
Job Design – 6 Main Approaches: Human Relations Approach, Engineering Approach and Job Characteristics Approach
Job Design is logical extension of job analysis. Job design is a way of organising tasks, duties and responsibilities into a productive unit of work. Job design involves deciding individual tasks, specifying the method of performing the tasks and combining individual tasks into specific jobs to be assigned to individual employees working in the organisation.
According to Michael Armstrong, “Job design is the process of deciding on the contents of a job in terms of its duties and responsibilities, on the methods to be used in carrying out the job in terms of techniques, systems and procedures and on the relationship that should exist between job holder and his superiors, subordinates and colleagues”.
1. Human Relations Approach – The job has to be designed in such a way that it is interesting and motivating to the employees. It should provide good working conditions to the employees.
2. Engineering Approach – Job design has to be based on scientific management principles. Employees selected should match the demands of the job. Employees should be trained to do the job. Good performers should be recognised.
3. Job Characteristics Approach – Employees will work hard when they are rewarded for good work and when the work gives them satisfaction. Motivation, satisfaction and performance should be included in job design.
Job Design – 2 Main Key Benefits: Organisational Benefits and Employee Benefits
Good job design increases the value of the position to the organisation, engages the worker and reduces individual and organisational risk. It leads to greater organisational effectiveness and efficiency and better results from employees.
Key benefits include:
1. Organisational Benefits:
a. Increased productivity and efficiency
b. Less need for close staff supervision, checking and control
c. More effective work teams
d. Skilled, flexible, responsive and able workforce to meet work requirements
e. Targeted training to maximise value from training investment
f. Improved talent management and succession planning
g. Safer and healthier workplace
h. Improved employee attraction, engagement and retention
2. Employee Benefits:
a. Greater clarity of work role, purpose and accountabilities
b. Shared understanding of work expectations with supervisor
c. Good team cohesion as roles, relationships and resources are clearly defined
d. Varied work and challenges, opportunity to develop work skills, flexibility and experience
e. Targeted training to meet current and future job needs
f. Better career pathways and developmental opportunities
g. Safer and healthier workplace, support for work/life balance
h. Increased job satisfaction and engagement