Everything you need to know about career development. Career development is a process that takes place over the life span and on the assumption that biological, psychological, sociological, and cultural factors influence carrier choice, career changes, and career withdrawal across the stages of development.
All these are based on development theories. The developmental career theory choices life span is of three stages in an individual’s lifetime.
Career Development is the planning of one’s career and the implementation of career plans by means of education, training, job search and acquisition and work experiences.
If we look at the process more from the perspective of the organization, then career development is the process of guiding the placement, movement, and growth of employees through assessment, planned training activities and planned job assignment.
Career development includes activities and programmes undertaken by the employee and the organization to acquire information regarding the attitudes and skills of the employee in order to meet the aspirations and requirements of the job.
Learn about:- 1. What is Career Development? 2. Components of Career Development 3. Information 4. Responsibility 5. Phases 6. Model 7. Advantages 8. Problems 9. Training Program.
Career Development in HRM: Components, Phases, Model, Advantages, Problems, Training Programs and Other Details
- What is Career Development?
- Components of Career Development
- Career Development Information
- Responsibility of Organisation and Individual Towards Career Planning and Development
- Phases of Career Development Process
- Career Development Model
- Advantages of Career Development
- Problems in Career Development
- Career Development Training Program
Career Development – What is Career Development?
Career development is a process that takes place over the life span and on the assumption that biological, psychological, sociological, and cultural factors influence carrier choice, career changes, and career withdrawal across the stages of development. All these are based on development theories. The developmental career theory choices life span is of three stages in an individual’s lifetime.
Career development is indispensable for implementing career plans. It consists of activities undertaken by the individual employees and the organisation to meet career aspirations and job requirements. An important requirement of career development is that every employee must accept his/her responsibility for development as all development is self-development.
Career development depicts that organisational career planning and individual career planning need to be integrated to design mutually acceptable career paths and formulate appropriate developmental strategies.
Career Development is the planning of one’s career and the implementation of career plans by means of education, training, job search and acquisition and work experiences. If we look at the process more from the perspective of the organization, then career development is the process of guiding the placement, movement, and growth of employees through assessment, planned training activities and planned job assignment.
i. The fantasy state involves role playing and imagination.
ii. The tentative stage reflects a person’s growing awareness of interests and abilities.
iii. The realistic state entails the identification of a career choice.
Furthermore, the theory identified four factors that shape an individual’s career decisions.
The factors that have an impact on career development are as follows:
i. Individual values.
ii. Emotional factors?
iii. Amount and kind of education.
iv. Effect of reality through environmental pressures.
Career Development – 2 Important Components: Career Planning and Career Management
Career development has two components, which are career planning and career management.
Component # 1. Career Planning:
Career Planning is a subset of a career development. It is the personal process of planning one’s work-life. This includes evaluating one’s abilities and interests, examining career opportunities, setting career goals and planning appropriate developmental activities.
Although career planning is mainly an individual process, the employing organization can assist through career counselling offered by the personnel staff and the supervisors, through workshops to assist the people in evaluating themselves and in deciding open developmental programmes, through career-planning work book made available to interested employees, and through the dissemination of information about jobs, within the organization and outside the organization.
Component # 2. Career Management:
Career Managements is the other subset of career development. Whereas career planning is primarily a personal process, career management focuses more on open plans and activities done by the organization. In career management the management of the organization matches individual employee career plans with organizational needs and implements programmes to accomplish these joint objectives.
The personnel department plays a central role in orchestrating the entire process. Individual career plans are related to the organization human resource inventory and needs forecasts. Management designs careers paths. It provides information about job openings and makes career counselling available to the employees.
Employee performance and potential are assessed. Management supports education and training programme. It provides for employee development on the job.
Career Development – Information Required for Career Development: Capabilities, Goal, Career Counsellor, Inclination and Choosing the Right Field
The following information is required for career development:
The important part while deciding the best career for you, is knowing your capabilities. It is imperative that you are fully aware of what skills you have, your traits and which combination of your attributes will maximize your performance. As the famous quote goes, “failing to plan is like planning to fail” holds true no matter what kind of choice you are making.
Planning becomes very imperative when it comes to making your career. Understand that time is a luxury and you do not have it.
If you desire to have a successful professional life, then work towards it right from the beginning, without any deviations. Visualize your goal, set your standards and memorize your mission statement. Analyze the formal education that you have received over the years and how it has moulded you.
If you stem from a commerce background, then finance, management, chartered accountancy and many more commerce-related fields will be open to you. This does not mean that the other areas of professional work have shut their doors down for you. Shifting to an entirely different profession, is not as big a deal as it seems. With proper education and a little experience of the related field, you can easily make that change happen.
iii. Career Counsellor:
Another way of going about choosing your career option, is fixing yourself an appointment with a career counsellor. As the phrase suggests, a career counsellor helps you to analyze your capabilities and skills. In this way the counsellor guides you through the ocean of alternatives and helps you to decide on what is the best option for you.
Career tests or aptitude tests determine where your inclination lies and in which field you will be able to deliver your cent percent. For engineers, who wish to opt for a career in management, enrolling in MBA programs prepares them for the sought career. This very popular trend, has been observed globally in the recent times. Even for those who think their careers are stagnating and potential is wasted, a career change can help in achieving job satisfaction.
v. Choosing the Right Field:
To reach these high standards, choosing the right field that matches your expectations, is important. Before embarking on a new career life, make sure that you have researched the subject through and through. Considering your family while deciding your career, is a vital aspect. If you are married, take your spouse’s opinion about the choice you have made.
Calculate the finances that you would have to invest, spend or save, to make or change your career. Keep in mind that Rome was not built in a day and that revenues will only begin to flow in, after a gestation period. At the end of it, try and get in an element of interest in your career. This way, you’ll always be close to your passions. At the end of it, follow your heart and happiness will open itself for you!
Career Development – Responsibility of Organisation and Individual towards Career Planning and Development
Until recently, an individual’s career was decided by the organisation. If the organisation needed someone at another location, someone was transferred. The success of one’s career was often indicated by the number of moves that were made, since these were generally rewarded by promotions to more important and better paying jobs.
The organisation was rarely concerned with whether the new job was really what the individual wanted, and the individual had very limited control over his career. Organisations have recently become more involved in career management activities.
A. Organisation’s Responsibility:
1. Now, organisations are becoming more concerned about whether an individual’s abilities and needs are really matched to the job. Previously, organisations were concerned only with matching an employee’s needs to the demands of the job.
2. Now they are also concerned with all employees’ needs to the rewards of the job but individual himself is also responsible for his career. The management as a whole should be committed to help the employees to attain their full potential by training, job rotation and acceptance and through greater challenges and responsibilities.
3. This calls for imaginative planning and involvement of management at various levels. Personnel policies are to be tailored to fit the needs of the organisation and employees so that motivation is kept in a dynamic form.
4. Employees also need to be given feedback about their career development efforts. As it is difficult for an employee to sustain years of preparation to reach career goals, unless they receive feedback.
5. Employees want to perceive equity in the organisation’s performance appraisal and promotion system with respect to career advancement opportunities.
6. Organisation should create awareness among the employees as they want to know what career advancement opportunities are available in the organisation.
7. The organisation’s responsibilities include providing resources to the employees for self- understanding and assisting in their goal setting. It should set and communicate missions, policies, goals and objectives of the corporate to the employees and also provide information to the employees on the organisation’s options and career paths.
8. The organisations should provide training, education and mobility opportunities to the employees and reinforce and support the manager’s role in career development and counselling.
9. The manager should provide support and opportunities to the employees. He should identify employee potential in respective fields. He must communicate the formal and informal realities of the organisation to the employees and provide exposure to them and integrate them to appropriate resources and people.
10. A manager should provide growth opportunities consistent with the employees and organisational goals by integrating the interest of both parties.
It is also important for an employee to remain attracted to the organisation. People should, therefore, definitely assume some responsibility for their own careers. Although organisations may offer career planning activities, one can engage in it oneself. This helps him to attain for himself-job security, career success, high self-esteem, growth, comfort and peace. It is also an accepted fact that without conscious planning, one is less likely to attain those career purposes.
B. Responsibility of the Individual:
1. One should know the realities of the organisational life. Two realities of organisational life are — the organisation’s expectations and organisation’s disappointments. Organisational expectations are competence to get a job done, ability to generate and sell ideas, loyalty and commitment, high personal integrity and strengths.
Organisational disappointments are what organisations do or do not do, bring disappointments to employees like providing low initial job challenges to new employees as they are perceived to create his own challenge from the unstructured situations, conflict and uncertainty in the organisation.
2. An individual should become useful to the organisation. In order to manage one’s career effectively, one has to do well so that one can get what one wants from the organisation. It may mean getting promoted by becoming valuable and useful to the organisation.
3. One should avoid getting stuck in a job that no longer provides growth or promotional opportunities; one has to investigate the possibility of a lateral move. If that does not work, one has to make ways to increase job responsibilities and if that fails to work, consider changing the organisation.
4. One should make his career planning successful.
5. The employees must obtain information showing what kind of work would suit him, taking his skills, experience and aptitude in account.
6. He should make his SWOT Analysis. He should assess his strength, weaknesses, opportunities and possible threats.
7. Career planning focuses on assisting individuals to identify their major career goals and to determine what they need to do to achieve these goals. An individual should plan his career according to his own aspirations and expectations.
8. He should assess his talents, capabilities and potentials and join the organisation where he feels he has better prospects to advance further.
9. He may leave the organisation and join the other where he finds still better chances than the former.
Career Development – 5 Important Phases of Career Development Process
Career development process includes both individuals and institutions. Individuals plan their own careers whereas institutions or organizations manage the careers of the employees. Career planning by an individual includes several sub processes such as occupational choices, organizational choices, job assignment choices and career self-development.
While the major sub processes of career management by organizations include recruitment and selection, human resource allocation, appraisal and evaluation and training and development. In order to have effective career development attempts by the organizations, designing automated career development systems plays a crucial role as it integrates a series of activities related to individual career planning and organizational career management involving employees, management and the organization.
An individual’s career is a series or sequence of work-related activities as well as his or her future aspirations. It is affected by several factors such as his/her behavior, attitude, values, ambitions and desires, and opportunities and threats and weaknesses and strengths plus the outer environment and economic conditions. It is a deliberate process followed by an individual depending upon his or her desires and aspirations over the span of one’s life.
Career development management is an on-going process that takes into account a particular job title or designation while preparing, implementing and monitoring succession planning depending upon the future requirements of an organization.
Obviously, it also takes human factors in account but the entire process is directed and operated as per the needs and convenience of an organization. The best planning takes into account both organization’s and individual’s aspirations and creates a perfect mix where both the parties can be benefited
There are five important phases of career development process:
Phase 1 – Exploration:
i. Identify and clarify career-related questions, issues, and concerns
ii. Gain a greater understanding of the client’s personal strengths, abilities and interests and the importance of managing “Career Assets”
iii. Investigate factors influencing career planning and decisions
iv. Reflect on past career choices and future career goals.
Clients and career managers work together to identify career issues that are important to the client. They will then clarify and confirm the clients’ for their career development program. In order to best help clients accomplish what they want, and gain the most out of their career program, the career manager will encourage them to consider their career in the context of life influences.
The client and career manager will also consider any obstacles that may be impeding the client’s progress. During this phase clients will complete personal and/or professional assessments to help them better understand their strengths, interests, work values, and career challenges.
Phase 2 – Alignment:
i. Explore and gain a greater understanding of potential careers and positions that match well with the client’s strengths, interests, and work/life goals.
ii. Research and identify the pros and cons associated with different career options.
iii. Narrow options and create a road map that identifies outstanding questions and information about selected career path(s), and plans to address these gaps.
After clients have identified their personal career assets and goals, they will spend some time exploring the different career options available to them. Clients will determine if they are interested in pursuing a completely new career, securing a job at a new company, or following entrepreneurial pursuits.
This alignment phase will help to ensure that they make an informed decision. By investigating potential careers in a planned and organised way, clients can begin to explore the variety of options available to them. This affirms that clients will have made the right decision.
However, clients may realise early on that they should change their direction. At the end of this phase, clients will have a solid plan in place that outlines their next steps to perform “due diligence” and pursue the career path(s) of their choice.
Phase 3 – Planning:
i. Confirm “career requirements” – the benchmarks clients will use to determine career path(s)
ii. Create a career plan based on the knowledge and skills needed to enter and progress in the client’s preferred careers/positions
iii. Acquire the knowledge and skills needed to enter and progress in various careers
iv. Confirm and test decisions regarding the specific career path(s) clients want to pursue.
Clients will identify and gather information that will help them assets what a given career or position is really like from an inside perspective. Any skill or experience requirements the client will need should addressed. This includes “must have” requirements for any career/position, and which career path(s)/position(s) they want to pursue.
Clients will also invest in resources and time to obtain the skills necessary to make forward transition. At the end of this phase, they will be positioned to begin planning their transition approach based on the Career Transition Matrix.
Phase 4 – Branding:
i. Research companies to identify which ones fit the client’s new career goals
ii. Define key messages used to highlight the client’s value, and make them stand out from the competition
iii. Assemble the clients’ Career Toolset – all the tools they will need to launch and manager their job search, make a career transition, and/or manage change in their career
iv. Sharpen clients’ interview and communication skills and build their confidence to “wow” employers, land a job, make a career change, and achieve their career goals.
Career branding involves developing the tactical tools that clients will need to ensure a successful transition. Clients will develop the tools they will need to make contacts, market themselves effectively, get in the door, and launch a plan that will lead them to achieve their career goals.
During this phase, clients will create a Career Toolset. This toolset includes a marketing plan, resume, job search plan, and networking communications. Clients will learn how to network and interview like a pro, build their confidence, and make a great impression. They will also gain greater self-awareness to be happily employed in a career that is meaningful to them.
Phase 5 – Implementation:
i. Leverage the clients’ network of contacts to find hidden opportunities, make connections, and meet people who can help them achieve their goal(s)
ii. Negotiate and secure the client’s ideal opportunity, including compensation and vacation packages
iii. Prepare for success during the clients’ first 30-60-90 days on the new job or in their new role.
After clients have successfully interviewed for a new position (or positions) or held discussions regarding their career options (e.g., going back to school, taking on a new role, etc.,), they will want to evaluate and confirm which opportunity is the right fit for them and then secure the best offer possible. During this phase, clients will learn how to perform the diligence on potential employers, evaluate opportunities, and negotiate to obtain the best offer they can.
They will also learn how to ready themselves for success in their new position. Clients will acclimate to a new organisational culture or work setting, a new work team, and/or new responsibilities by creating a 30-60-90 Day Plan. This plan will help them kick start their new career and get off on the right foot.
Career Development – Career Development Model: Pillars, Structure, Benefits and Components
The Career Development Model is a comprehensive system that enables clients to achieve strategic breakthroughs in their careers. The model facilitates strategic thinking and incorporates an integration plan targeted to enable clients to achieve key career goals. It is based on four vital pillars to ensure completeness, quality, professionalism, and value in all interactions.
The pillars are comprised of:
3. Insight, and
The Career Development Model lays out all of the steps clients will take to achieve their career vision from beginning to end – from exploring and identifying career goals to investigating new opportunities, securing a new role, managing career change, and accomplishing their dreams.
The model outlines the activities that both the client and career manager will perform, as well as the tools they will use, as they proceed together through the career development process. Both parties will know where they are headed and what to expect.
The Ginac Group’s methodology and tools blend robust career and adult development theories with business-based best practices and practical experience to support each client’s desired results. The methodology was developed from the ground up and tested over eight years with thousands of clients. It represents the “best of the best” in career development and transition strategies and methodologies.
The Career Development Model was designed to help career managers understand their clients’ needs, goals, and issues at a deeper level in order to gain greater insight into what is “really going on.” This approach helps clients achieve greater self-awareness and gain the most out of their experience instead of providing a “band-aid” fix.
Rather than being a “one-size-fits-all” approach, the Career Development Model is flexible and easily adapted to meet individual needs and goals. The objective is to help people achieve their personal career vision, and career managers can support them in taking any number of paths to get there.
Highly effective career managers use a structured approach with clients. The journey that teaches fledgling career managers how to lead clients from a point of career “vision” or a “state of indecision” to a point of realising and implementing their goals starts here. Talent Guard created the Career Development Model, which lays down the road map for both career managers and clients to follow in order to achieve change, accomplish the clients’ career goals, and – for clients – to find greater happiness.
The career development model offers many benefits, including the following:
i. Creates an established process to execute breakthrough career change over a client’s career life span by leveraging a planning and implementation system that is responsive and flexible, yet disciplined.
ii. Communicates the client’s vision as the starting point for all career planning, as well as communicating major shifts in career direction, career goals, and significant career issues.
iii. Emphasises a thorough analysis and understanding of reoccurring problems and themes; this helps ensure that new career goals are based upon a sound understanding of the client’s current capabilities and opportunities for change.
iv. Reinforces planning who will carry out the implementation between the client and the career manager; this helps ensure that the goals are understood, achievable, and “owned” by those who are responsible for achieving them.
v. Aligns both the client’s and career manager’s efforts throughout the relationship in support of career resilience; in this way many small achievements can complement each other to improve performance or to achieve a break-through.
The career development model is composed of two important components:
1. The Career Transition Matrix, which is a tool for understanding the career transition path most appropriate for the client.
2. The Career Development Framework, which is a five-phase process for facilitating career change.
The Career Development Model explains how to best prepare the client to understand the complexity of career transition. It also, demonstrates a pragmatic approach to achieving change in a consistent and forward-looking manner. The model embraces the two main strands of the Willing Client and the Career Manager. This embracement is the cornerstone of positive, productive, and effective life-enhancing change.
The client must be willing and read to engage in a change process for it to be productive and worthwhile. Since change is one of the most difficult things in life to deal with, it is often a major obstacle to achieving lasting results. People naturally want to stick to the things they know, and do things the way they have done them before. Clients must be able to quantify and qualify change in their mind before they become a willing client.
They must have specific knowledge about the change process. Clients need to have an idea about where they will end up, and how long it will take to achieve their goals. They will want a specific formula to be able to problem solve over their career span. A deep and confident understanding of how career transition occurs is vital to them.
Clients may also need assistance understanding how to interpret, communicate, and apply strategies and tactics to facilitate positive change. Thus, the career manager’s job is to lay out the model, which provides a structured context on which to build and evaluate strategies that foster the client’s career development process. A primary way to accomplish this goal is to teach clients how to – (1) reflect on their unique transition, (2) diagnose their own career status, (3) reflect on their actions, (4) consider multiple perspectives, and (5) generate various possible outcomes based on insight, research, and best practices. The model helps to make the concept of career transition move from the intangible to the tangible.
Gaining self-awareness is tough, and there are very few people who can accomplish this process with great success on their own. The Career Development Model is most valuable to the client when it is used in conjunction with a career manager, who –
i. It responsible for helping clients think soundly and to make change skilfully
ii. Is someone who can sit with clients, hear what they are saying, and also sense what is unspoken
iii. Is someone who understands how to dance around topics with insightful and pointed questions
iv. Helps clients reveal their innermost aspirations and goals
v. Understands the delicate balance of providing introspection and empathy with actionable tasks that lead to achieving a positive outcome.
The best career managers blend business context with counselling, marketing, and consulting skills to help clients. They will help clients withstand the emotional impacts that are inevitable with change and get them to focus on the results they desire.
Career Development – Advantages of Career Development for Individuals and Organizations
Prof. Subba Rao divided the advantages of career development for individuals and for organizations.
i. For Individuals:
(a) The process of career development helps the individual to have the knowledge of various career opportunities his priorities etc.
(b) This knowledge helps him select the career which is suitable to his lifestyles, preferences, family environment, scope for self-planning.
(c) It helps the organization identify internal employees who can be promoted.
(d) Internal promotions, up-gradation and transfer motivate the employees, boost up their morale and also result in increased job satisfaction.
(e) Increased job satisfaction enhances employee commitment and creates a sense of belongingness and loyalty to the organization.
(f) Employees will await his turn of promotion rather than changing to another organization. This lowers employee turnover.
(g) It improves employee’s performance on the job by tapping their potential abilities and further employee growth.
(h) It satisfies the employee’s esteem needs.
ii. For Organizations:
A long term focus of career development will increase the effectiveness of human resource management.
More specifically, the advantages of career planning and development for an organization include:
(a) Efficient career development ensures the availability of human resources with required skills, knowledge and talent;
(b) The efficient policies and practices improve the organization’s ability to attract and retain highly skilled and talented employees.
(c) Proper career development ensures that the women and people belonging to backward communities get opportunities for growth and development.
(d) The career plan continuously tries to satisfy the employee’s expectations and as such minimizes employee’s frustration.
(e) By attracting and retaining the people from different cultures, enhances cultural diversity.
(f) Protecting employee’s interest results in promotion organizational goodwill.
Career Development – 3 Major Problems Faced by the Employees: Mobility, Dual Career Families and Decline in Career Opportunities
The starting point of career planning in any organization is proper recruitment and selection followed by training. Career development includes activities and programmes undertaken by the employee and the organization to acquire information regarding the attitudes and skills of the employee in order to meet the aspirations and requirements of the job.
The problems faced by the employees in career development are:
Problem # 1. Mobility:
There are two types of mobility on career development actions, namely external and internal mobility. In many cases, employees leave the organization and move to other organizations mostly to higher positions if they feel that it shall boost their career progression faster. This is called external mobility. In the case of internal mobility, an employee moves laterally to another department within the organization and may get a different career along with a different lifestyle.
Therefore, there is a need for career counselling and deep thinking before and after the change in the career is made, especially in the case of internal lateral mobility.
Problem # 2. Dual Career Families:
In today’s scenario, the number of working female employees is on the increase. One finds both husband and wife being professionals. In this case, one of the family members might face the problem of transfer. This problem is faced by most organizations.
Problem # 3. Decline in Career Opportunities:
There are five stages in career development.
(d) Late career, and
Some career opportunities reach a declining stage due to rapid changes in technology. Therefore, the solution to such problem is career shift. The top management overcomes this problem by career counselling, developing assessment centres, giving support to educational programmes, etc.
Further career planning does not suit very small organizations. It is also not an effective management technique for a large number of people who work on the shop floor. Political intervention, favoritism and nepotism in promotion, and the policy of reservation may make it difficult to practice systematic career planning.
Career Development – Training Program: Areas and Support Activities
Career Development is a process where employees strategically explore, plan, and create their future at work by designing a personal learning plan to achieve their potential and fulfill the organisation’s learning, seeking opportunities, taking risks, and finding ways to contribute to the organisation in a productive and motivated fashion.
Goddard’s career development training program is designed to help employees take responsibility for their careers by offering courses in the following three areas:
1. Career Planning (CP):
Training Programs and services that assist employees in conducting individual assessments and establishing a professional career development plan that helps them reach their full potential and fulfill the organisation’s mission.
If you are at this stage of your career, consider taking the following courses:
i. Career Concepts Orientation
ii. Individual Development Planning
iii. Leading from the Inside Out
iv. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) ® Instrument Workshop.
2. Career Enrichment (CE):
Training Programs and services that enable employees to develop, expand, and full utilize existing competencies in their current career field, participate in a rotational or development assignment, engage in coaching and mentoring activities in order to propagate a motivated, productive, and resilient workforce.
If you are at this stage of your career, consider taking this course –
Learn to Fly – Realising An Increased Sense of Vitality and Balance in your Life.
3. Career Transition (CT):
Training Programs and services that help employees assess, explore, and reality-test their potential for changing career fields, transitioning into management, transferring into other directorates, leaving the Center, Agency or the Federal Government, or phasing into partial or full retirement.
If you are at this stage of your career, consider taking the following courses:
i. Which Way Leads to Success?
ii. Interview with Confidence
iii. Retirement Planning at Any Age – CSRS
iv. Retirement Planning at Any Age – FERS
v. Retirement Planning Workshop – CSRS
vi. Retirement Planning Workshop – FERS.
Role of Other Support Activities:
The following support activities also form an integral part of the career development programs of an organization. These include career discussions, involvement of career resource centers, career counselling, career workshops etc.
Career discussions between employee and supervisor form an integral part of any career development system. Training supervisors for their career discussion role is necessary for success; even more important and difficult is convincing supervisors to apply that training.
Career Resource Centers:
Career resource centers have been found to be effective if they support a larger career development system. These centers act as a concrete symbol of company support of career development and openness of information.
ii. Self-Assessment and Career Counselling:
Although career counselling does exist in organizations, self-assessment is a more common tool. A trend appears to be the formal incorporation of career counselling into employee assistance programs, as career issues become more complex. Career workbooks and similar activities are currently among the most popular self-assessment tools.
iii. Career Development Workshops:
Career development workshops are frequently being used in most organizations. These workshops emphasize on teaching employees to be more empowered, enhance self-assessment capabilities, align their focus on experiencing success in their current jobs and encourage them into life career planning.
IBM’s career planning workshop focuses on the interests, skills, and contributions inherent in the individual’s current job. Employees study their jobs’ components and learn how to make the work more challenging. In addition, participants learn how jobs evolve from business needs.