Typhoid fever is a communicable disease caused by Salmo­nella tophi. The term enteric fever includes both typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever. The symptoms of typhoid fever are:

1. Continuous fever for 3 to 4 weeks. There is a step wise increase to the extent of 1° every day. (step ladder pyrexia)

2. Relative bradycardia

3. Several headache, back pain with dry and coated tongue. Transmission


The sources of infection are feces and urine of cases and carriers. It is transmitted mainly by contaminated water and food. It is also transmitted by fingers and flies.

Prevention and control

1. Early diagnosis by culture of blood and stools.

2. Notification to health authorities.


3. Isolation of the patient to prevent spread of infection.

4. Treatment with drugs like chloramphenicol.

5. Disinfection of urine and stools.

6. Detection of carriers and treating them.


7. Sanitary measures like safe drinking water and food hygiene.

8. Immunization with TAB vaccine.

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