Flower arrangement is not only an art, but a hobby too. None can give such pleasure and enjoyment than that of an arrangement of flowers. It adds charm and life t a room. Like all other arts, this art needs a lot of creative ability which can be developed by study and experiences.

Equipments needed for flower arrangement

1. Flowers and foliage, fruits or berries.

2. Containers- Vases or bowls to support flowers and foliage. It should be of the right size, shape, colour and material. Any type of container that can hold water can be used, e.g. household pots, vessels, jugs, bottles, shallow, dishes, bamboo baskets etc.

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3. Stem holder- To hold the flowers firmly. The best one is the needle-point holder with a metal base.

4. Aids- Scissors, knife and blades, for cutting stems, Metal tubes and cones or test tubes can be used to hold flowers in a particular direction. Chellotape or scotch tape can be used for repair jobs.

5. Other accessories- Any other decorative items can be used to garnish the arrangement.

Principles of flower arrangement

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Though there are no hard and fast rules, yet there are certain principles to be observed while arranging flowers for satisfactory results. They are:

1. Design:

Firstly, in which design the flowers are to be arranged should be thought-out. The design depends upon the basic lines-circle, triangle, rectangle. Even diamond, oval, fan, letter, L or S, horizontal, vertical, diagonal or crescent design.

2. Harmony:

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These should be harmony of the flowers, container and the setting in which the arrangement is exhibited. Harmony should be achieved in colour shape and number of leaves and flowers used. The whole arrangement should appear as a harmonious unit, when it is arranged.

3. Balance:

Balance in flower arrangement can either be symmetrical or asymmetrical. In the former, the plant materials on both sides of the centre are similarly arranged. Whereas in the latter on, the plant material is not similar in both the sides. A heavy material is not similar in both the sides. A heavy material near the centre is balanced by a light weight away from it. Here, balance also means distribution of size, weight and colour-Dark colours appears heavier than light ones. Also short flowers do not look well in high vases but tall flowers.

4. Rhythm:

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Rhythm can be achieved through line movement- that is by grading and blending of colours, balancing and counter balancing or curves and other shapes, giving visual or appearance of movement. The arrangement can either be slanting or upright or the blossoms may form C or V curves. Rhythm can also be obtained through colours by placing flowers of same hue together by grading from dark to light hues.

5. Proportion:

There should be proper proportion between the containers and flowers. The plant materials should be 1 1/2 times as high as a tall or cylindrical container. Horizontal arrangement looks good in shallow containers only.

6. Emphasis:

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Emphasis can be created in flower arrangement by creating a focal point- generally the central point and close to .the neck of the container. It is here that the flowers used are the darkest, heaviest and the stems longest.

Types of flower arrangement

Before making a flower arrangement, certain factors are to be decided and kept in mind. They are the occasion of the arrangement, the room- its style, design and colour, placement of the arrangement and the background space where flowers are to be placed and the mood of the people who would enjoy it.

There are several common types of flower arrangement. They are:

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1. Line arrangement

2. Mass arrangement

3. Combination of line and mass arrangement.

4. Miniature arrangement

5. Floating arrangement

6. Dry arrangement.

1. Line Arrangement:

In this kind of arrangement the element of line is emphasized. Only a small amount of plant material is used in order to display the beautiful lines of plant growth. The line arrangement is in the form of a triangle, rectangle etc.

2. Mass Arrangement:

This is also called as the traditional style of flower arrangement. Here, mass flowers of all kinds, colours and sizes are used tougher in a decorative container, giving it a multi-coloured, mass affect. The mass arrangement may be compact, semi-compact or an airy one. This type is generally decorated in huge palatial rooms or in big formal parties.

3. Combination of line and Mass arrangement:

This style combines the best features of line and mass arrangement. So, it is both charming and interesting. But the mass arrangement should not dominate the line arrangement. Some examples are the triangle, pyramid, circle, semi-circular, fan, basket and Scurvy.

4. Miniature arrangement:

In this arrangement, the whole set up is in a miniature form. Small flowers are used in other tiny containers such as cream bottles, whisky measures or in small bottles available in the house. It is normally displayed on the food trays, bed-side table in the nursery room or in the wash basins.

5. Floating arrangement:

This arrangement can be made in shallow bowls and trays with short-stemmed flowers. The largest and most attractive flower, floats in the centre, with other small sized flowers, surrounds it in a group. But, the flowers should not cover up the entire water. Flowers, which are generally used, are lily, lotus, water lily etc.

6. Dry arrangement:

This type of arrangements is made with fruits, seeds, pods, vegetables, bare branches etc. which lasts for a longer time. Even, varieties of grasses, flowers, maize, sugar cane, clustering flowers of palm, peacock feathers may be used.

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