The growing communalism among the Muslims led to a two-nation theory. The Hindu-Muslim unity which had lasted for some time in the colonial India shattered into pieces. The process was furthered due to the British sympathy-towards the Muslims. The Congress always succumbed to the pressure of the Muslim League which made them firm on their demand for Pakistan.

Further, the August Offer of 1940, the Cripps Mission of 1942, the Wavell Plan of 1945 and the Cabinet Mission of 1946 contributed a lot for the partition of India. At last, the Mountbatten Plan and Indian Independence Act of 1947 led to the final partition of India.

The main provisions of the Indian Independence Act of 1947 were as follows:

1. On 15th August 1947, after the partition of India, two independent kingdoms. India and Pakistan would be established.


2. Eastern Bengal, Western Punjab, Sindh and North-West Frontier Province would be included in Pakistan.

3. It was not obligatory on the part of both the nations to accept the membership of the British Commonwealth of Nations. The choice was left to India and Pakistan.

4. The title Kaiser-i-Hind awarded to the British Crown would be abolished and the post of the
Secretary of States for India would come to an end.

5. Before the framing of new Constitutions in India and Pakistan, both the countries would be governed under the Government of India Act.1953.


6. The native rulers were given the choice to join any State they liked.

7. Those who had joined the civil service before 15th August, 1947 would continue in that service after independence. They would enjoy the same privileges and rights relating the remuneration, leave, pension etc.

Accordingly, Mohammed Ali Jinnah became the Governor General of Pakistan on 15th August, 1947. From the Red Fort in Delhi, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru delivered his ‘Tryst with Destiny’ speech on 15th August, 1947 as the clock struck 12 and India became independent of the British rule.