A large number of values emerge out of teaching History. These are based on reality and are the outcome of the lessons of History through ages. The teacher of History should be conscious of these values and try to realize them through his activities in the classrooms.
All these values are classified into the following nine types:
(1) Pedagogical or educational value,
(2) Informative or knowledge value,
(3) Intellectual disciplinary value,
(4) Cultural value,
(5) Political or citizenship value,
(6) Vocational value,
(7) Ethical value,
(8) Nationalistic value and
(9) Internationalist value.
(1) Pedagogical Value
History is the Science of human progress and development. Its scope is very vast and embraces all subjects in one form or other. Science, arts, language, literature, mathematics and geography all have historical background and attempts are made to relate the present conditions as well as status of these subjects with the past developments while teaching the subjects. The principle of correlation so much emphasized by the exponents of Basic education has immense pedagogical values.
According to this principle, all the subjects are correlated conveniently and History can easily be treated as the central or core subject. History is the rich store of interesting and illuminating stories in different subjects and can effectively be utilized in the classrooms for teaching various subjects.
(2) Information Value
History is called the “a veritable mine of experience” and “a store house of knowledge”. It describes origin and development of different civilizations and culture. It contains useful knowledge regarding art, science, architecture, education, industry and so on.
It records the life and struggles of different peoples of the world through ages. This information helps the individuals to solve the problems faced from time to time Bacon has, therefore, rightly said, “Histories make man wise”.
(3) Intellectual Values
It goes without saying that teaching of History improves the child’s powers of imagination, reasoning and judgment. It facilitates his capacity for gathering information, analyzing, interpreting and arriving at conclusions. All these promote the intellectual development and discipline of the students.
Various mental faculties are nicely exercised and developed by the inter-play of facts and figures, information and inferences relating to the different historical events and anecdotes.
(4) Cultural Value
History shows the cultural development of various peoples through years. It reveals the origin, evolution and problems for cultures. It imparts to the students how a culture is transmitted from generation to another with changes and modifications. That is why, study of history develops patience, tolerance, mutual exchange of ideas and liberal attitudes towards various problems of the society. This helps promote national integrity and international understanding.
(5) Citizenship Education
Political lessons are better imparted by history than any other subject. History is rightly called the root of political science and political science is held as the fruit of history.
Knowledge of history-its political development, constitutional evolution and democratic growth helps students to train them in citizenship. Adequate understanding & attitudes developed through the study of history facilities democratic citizenship and training.
(6) Vocational Value
The study of history helps students to appear at the competitive examinations like IAS, IPS, OAS and OPS etc. more confidently. It also prepares persons for occupying the posts of political leaders, curators, journalists, teachers and personnel for State Archives. In short, history enables students to choose suitable vocations.
(7) Ethical Values
History is full of living examples. It is said “examples are better than precepts” and “history is philosophy teaching by examples”. These examples reveal the stories of great mien who did sacrifice their lives for truth, justice and goodness.
History has recorded the laudable actions and achievements of the individuals who experienced untold sufferings for the sake of the lofty ideals and great moral values. Students are inspired to live a life of truth, justice and sacrifice and motivated by the bright examples of history.
(8) Nationalistic Values
The history of one’s country is the story of its national development. It depicts the life of heroes and martyrs who suffered and sacrificed for the sake of their mother land either for depending on their country or for fighting out their enemies. Love one’s own country is good and should be fostered through the study of history. But blind love and biased attitude towards one’s country is bad and to be discouraged.
(9) Internationalists Value
Modern history particularly world history describes the various national struggles, revolutions and incidents with international bearings and implications. Most of these events have common repercussions in many countries and show the common endeavours for the general welfare and universal brotherhood.
The spirit of “one world” and international understanding is promoted through the study of these events and occurrences. Students of history are led to believe that no nation can thrive in isolation and all should live in peace and happiness together.