The salient feature of the Treaties of 1636 with Golcunda and Bijapur
Hardly Mahabat Khan had turned his back on Daultabad when Shahji appeared before the fortress and besieged it. Mahabat Khan returned and drove him away. Shahji proclaimed an infant descendent of the Nizam Shahi dynasty as the ruler of Ahmadnagar with himself as the Regent. He then secured the help of Bijapur and succeeded in defeating the Mughals at Parenda and driving them out of Ahmadnagar into Khandesh.
Unfortunately, Mahabat Khan died and Shah Jahan personally came to the Deccant ordered the operations. On 21 February, 1636, Shah Jahan arrived at Daultabad. His long experience of the Deccan brought him to the conclusion that unless Golcunda and Bijapur were crushed, Shahji could not be crushed.
The Rulers of the Deccan also realised that the safety of each depended upon the safety of all and vice versa. Shah Jahan directed three large armies to converge on Golcunda and Bijapur and coerced the Sultans to submission.
Another army was ordered to reduce the Nizam Shah Forts of the North-West and occupy Junnar and Nasik Districts. The plan succeeded. Qutub Shah recognised the suzerainty of Shah Jahan by promising to pay an annual tribute, strike coins and read the Khutba in his name.
The attitude of Adil Shah was different. He decided to vindicate his honour and dignity. He carried on a defensive warfare with cool courage and ruthless energy. Ultimately, he also signed a treaty on 6 May, 1636. Adil Shah recognised the suzerainty of Shah Jahan and agreed to pay a peace offering of 20 lacs of rupees.
He was to respect the Frontier of Golcunda and withhold his aid from Shahji. In return, he was to acquire a part of Ahmadnagar. The peace of 1636 left Shahji to fight all alone. He held out for some time and ultimately surrendered in October 1636.
The Treaties of 1636 with Bijapur and Golcunda were statesman-like. They enabled Shah Jahan to realise the ultimate objectives of Akbar the suzerainty of the Mughal Emperor was accepted over the length and breadth of the country. Peace with the Mughals enabled the States of Bijapur and Golcunda to expand their territories towards the South and they became powerful and prosperous.
Aurangzeb’s War against Golcunda
A new chapter opened in the History of the Deccan with the appointment of Aurangzeb as the Viceroy of the Deccan in 1653. Aurangzeb was an orthodox Muslim and the existence of the two Shia States of Golcunda and Bijapur was not acceptable to him. The Mughals constantly suspected the bonfires of their rulers as they communicated through their seaports with the Shia Ruler of Persia. The wealth of the two states also tempted Aurangzeb. There were the diamond mines and iron mines. There was the fertile soil in the valleys of the Godavari and the Krishna.
Aurangzeb wanted an excuse to invade Golcunda. He found that there were arrears of revenues and he demanded their payment at once. The Ruler of Golcunda was charged with the offence of conquering the Karnataka without the permission of the Mughal Emperor. The imprisonment of Mohammad Amin, the son of Mir Jumla, by the Ruler of Golcunda precipitated matters. Aurangzeb ordered the Ruler of Golcunda to release the son of Mir Jumla and ordered Prince Mohammad to lead an army into Golcunda to enforce obedience.
Qutab Shah left his capital and fled into the strong fortress of Golcunda. On 24 January, 1656, Prince Mohammad entered Hyderabad. The city was plundered and valuable booty fell into the hand of the Mughals. Aurangzeb himself left Daultabad to join his son. He was determined to annex Golcunda and therefore he rejected the repeated offers of peace made by the Ruler of Golcunda. Ultimately, he opened negotiations with Dara Shikoh who was bribed to intercede in his favour.
However, Aurangzeb put pressure on Shah Jahan to annex Golcunda. Ultimately, Shah Jahan ordered Aurangzeb to settle the terms of peace with Golcunda. The orders of Shah Jahan were suppressed so that in the meantime more favourable terms may be got from the Ruler of Golcunda. When through the agency of Dara and Jahanara, Shah Jahan came to know of the true facts, he ordered Aurangzeb to stop the war immediately and leave Golcunda.
Aurangzeb was forced to raise the siege on 30 March, 1656 but before doing that, he forced the Ruler of Golcunda to pay a heavy indemnity and cede a district. Aurangzeb also forced him to give his daughter in marriage to Prince Mohammad and declare him as his heir- apparent.
Aurangzeb’s War against Bijapur
As regards Bijapur, its king Mohammad Adil Shah died on 4 November, 1656 and a son of 18 succeeded him. It was rumored that the boy was not the real son of Mohammad Adil Shah. That resulted in all sorts of disorders. Shahji Bhonsle disobeyed his master and the turbulent Nobles showed signs of disaffection. Aurangzeb also took advantage of the state of affairs and put pressure on Shaj Jahan to allow him to invade Bijapur. In anticipation of orders, Aurangzeb massed his troops on the Frontier and himself moved to Ahmadnagar.
At that time, Mir Jumla was the adviser of Shah Jahan. The Emperor sanctioned the war and deputed Mir Jumla to help Aurangzeb. The directions of Shah Jahan to Aurangzeb were that either he should attack and annex the whole of Bijapur or at least that portion of Ahmadnagar which had been ceded to Adil Shah in 1636, and demand a sum of Rs. 1.5 crores of rupees and recognition of the suzerainty of Shah Jahan in lieu of annexation of Bijapur. Aurangzeb did his best to corrupt the army and nobility of Bijapur and actually induced them to desert.
On the one hand, Aurangzeb persuaded Shah Jahan to sanction the war and on the other he did his best to undermine the strength of the Ruler of Bijapur by alienating his army. Mir Jumla arrived at Aurangabad on 18 January, 1657 to help Aurangzeb in the war and on 2 March, 1657, Aurangzeb started the siege of Beedar.
On 29 March Beedar surrendered. Kalyani fell on 29 July, 1657. In the meantime, Shah Jahan repeatedly ordered Aurangzeb to close the campaign and conclude a treaty because Bijapur had agreed to pay 1.5 crores of rupees and cede Beedar, Kalyani and Parenda, besides all the forts in the Nizam Shahi Konkan. At this time, Aurangzeb received the news of the dangerous illness of Shah Jahan and he was forced to stop the war in order to try his luck for succession to the throne. Aurangzeb accepted the terms of peace mentioned above.