Significant progress and contribution in the fields of science and art were made by India during the ancient period of history. Some of them are as under:
In the field of Science:
The knowledge of iron technology was acquired by the Indians even in the Vedic Age. It was used for the spread of agriculture throughout the country. Some of the most significant advances in science and technology were made during the reign of Gupta’s. Most of the major work in mathematics, medicine and astronomy belong to this period. Aryabhatta and Varamihir were the most renowned scholars of astronomy. The causes of the lunar and solar eclipses were discovered by Aryabatta.
In the field of art:
Significant progress in art, architecture, painting, dance and music was achieved by India in the ancient times. The story of Indian art begins with Harappan culture. But it flourished in Mauryan and Gupta dynasties. The Greek ambassador Megasthenes described the palace of Chandragupta Maurya in glowing terms. The great monuments of the Mauryan Age are the monolithic pillars of Ashoka on which he inscribed his famous edicts. The finely carved capital with magnificent animal figures is the most striking feature of these pillars. The Sarnath lion capital forms part of India’s national emblem. The polish and smoothness of these pillars are amazing.
The Gandhara and Mathura schools of art also made great progress in Art. Gandhara artists sculptured themes from Buddha’s life and the Jataka stories. The Buddha images were produced in large numbers. The Mathura Sculptors preserved and improved the fine qualities of purely
Indian Art traditions:
During this period, the cave architecture also developed in India. Beautiful Viharas, Mandaps, Chaityas, Rathas and Cave Temples were cut out of rocks. The Ajanta, Ellora, Elephant and Mahabalipuram cave temples are some of the great achievements of this period. Also very rich and famous are the Ajanta paintings, which depict various themes such as Buddha’s life and the Jataka stories.