14 essential points on struggle for independence of India

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14 essential points on struggle for independence of India are mentioned below

At a glance

1. The moderates dominated the Congress during its early years. Soon, the Extremists became powerful. Extremism arose because of dissatisfaction with the British attitude towards the Congress, the influence of world events and Lord Curzon’s policy of partitioning Bengal.

2. In AD 1905, Bengal was divided into two. It was an attempt to break Hindu-Muslim unity and weaken the national movement.

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3. Partition of Bengal led to the astart of the Swadeshi and Boycott Movements. The people started boycotting British goods and wore only Indian made cloth. The movements started in Bengal and soon spread throughout India. Students and women played an active part in it.

4. The Moderates and Extremists fought over many issues. In AD 1907, the Extremists left the Congress.

5. The Morley-Minto Reforms were a disappointment. They introduced separate electorates for the Muslims.

6. A militant movement grew up in the early years of twentieth century AD. Secret societies were formed whose members believed in the use of violence to overthrow British rule. The movement did not succeed.

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7. Encouraged by the British, the Muslim League was formed in AD 1906. Its formation sowed the seeds of communalism.

8. Home Rule Leagues were started by Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Annie Besant.

9. In AD 1916, the Moderated and the Extremists were united. The Congress and the Muslim League also came together to fight for self-rule.

10. Mahatma Gandhi emerged as a national leader. He advocated the use of ‘satyagraha’ to fight the British. His first three major political activities were at Champaran in Bihar, Ahmedabad and Kaira (Kheda) in Gujarat. His social agenda included the removal of untouchability, the revival of village crafts and the popularization of charkha and khadi.

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11. The Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms of AD 1919 introduced the system of ‘dyarchy’.

12. The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre took place on 13 April 1919. The shameful act was widely condemned.

13. The Khilafat Movement was started in AD 1920 by Mohamed and Shaukat Ali. It led to the Muslims joining the national movement.

14. Gandhiji launched the Non-Cooperation Movement in AD 1920. People refused to cooperate with the government. The movement was withdrawn after Chauri Chaura Incident in AD 1922.

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