Socialist Movement in Europe rose as a reaction against the evils of capitalist system which became evident in the wake of the industrial revolution. As a result of the industrial revolution a class of landless and property less workers emerged which was completely divorced from the means of production and completely relied on his labour for his livelihood.
No doubt, in the earlier centuries also there existed a class of labourers who were entirely depended on their labour for their livelihood, but their number was too small and consequently they could not exert any influence on society. In the wake of the industrial revolution a large section of society became dependant on their labour for their livelihood and naturally attracted great attention.
A number of philosophers attacked the basis of capitalism-private ownership of means of production, and advocated a new social and economic system in which all the means of production should be owned and controlled by the society as a whole.