(i) Nationalist feelings were widespread among middle class Germans, who in 1848 tried to unite different regions of the German confederation.
(ii) This movement was suppressed by combined forces of monarchy and military, supported by large landowners (Junkers) of Prussia.
(iii) Then Prussia’s chief minister, Otto von Bismarck, took the leadership of the movement for national unification.
(iv) Three wars over seven years with Austria, Denmark and France ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification.
(v) In January 1871, Prussian king William I was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles.