Cavour was one of the greatest statesmen and diplomatists of the nineteenth century in Europe. He was born in 1810 in a family belonging to the nobility of Piedmont. After receiving education, he joined the army as engineer, but he could not serve it for a long period due to his liberal opinions regarding the constitutional reforms.
He resigned in 1831 and for the next fifteen years, he lived in his village and devoted his time to developing his ancestral estate. During this period, he also took keen interest in the politics of Italy. He also visited France and England.
He was greatly influenced by the parliamentary system of England. In 1842, he established an organization called the “Associazone Agrarian”.
This organization earned great popularity in Italy in a very short period. According to Acton, it was “an important channel and instrument of political influence.”
In 1847, Cavour published a paper named ‘Resorgimento’ in order to make the movement more influential in Piedmont.
The main objects of this reform movement were: the liberty of Italy, coordination between the people and the rulers, mutual cooperation between the rulers of different states of Italy and introduction of constitutional, political, social and economic reforms.
Owing to his independent thinking and high ideals, Cavour became much popular among the Italians. When the parliament was created in Piedmont in 1848, he welcomed this political institution with great enthusiasm, because he had been demanding it for a long period.
Owing to his popularity, Cavour was elected as a member of the first Parliament of Piedmont, and was taken into the Cabinet in 1850 as the minister of Agriculture and Commerce.
He became the Prime Minister of Piedmont in 1852, and remained on this post till 1861 with the gap of a few weeks. During this period, he proved himself an able diplomat, a great politician and rather a maker of Italy.