At a Glance
1. After the Non-cooperation Movement, the Congress was divided into two groups- the pro-changers and the no-changers. The pro-changers wanted to enter the legislatures. They were led by C R Das, Motilal Nehru and Vithalbhai Patel. The no-changers wanted to boycott the legislatures. They were led by Vallabhbhai Patel, C Rajagopalachari and Rajendra Prasad.
2. The pro-changers formed the Swaraj Party in AD 1923. The party won many seats in the legislatures.
3. Many peasant and worker movements broke out in the 1920’s and 1930’s. The Congress was closely attached to these movements.
4. Socialist ideas spread in India during the 1920’s. The Communist Party of India and the Congress Socialist Party were formed in AD 1925 and AD 1934 respectively.
5. The revolutionary movement became very active during this time. The revolutionaries believed in the use of violence and terror to end British rule. Some of the important revolutionaries were Ramprasad Bismil, Jogesh Chatterjee, Sachin Sanyal, Ashfaqullah Khan, Rajendra Lahiri, Roshan Singh, Chandra Shekhar Azad, Bhagat Singh, B K Dutt, Rajguru, Sukhdev, Jatin Das, Benoy Bose, Badal Gupat, Dinesh Gupta, Surya Sen and two women- Pritilata Waddedar and Kalpana Dutt.
6. New leaders such as Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhas Chandra Bose became prominent. They were inspired by socialism and very attached to social causes.
7. The Simon Commission came to India in AD 1928. It was boycotted by the Congress and the Muslim League.
8. The Congress passed the Poorna Swaraj Resolution in AD 1929. It demanded complete Independence of India.
9. The Civil Disobedience Movement was launched in AD 1934. It began with the Dandi March.
10. The First Round Table Conference of AD 1930 was boycotted by the Congress. It attended the second conference in AD 1931. The conference ended in a failure.
11. The Civil Disobedience Movement was withdrawn in AD 1934.
12. Independence movements in the Princely States gained momentum in the 1920’s. The Congress encouraged it.
13. The British encouraged the policy of communalism. The Muslim League gave the Two-Nation Theory. Mohammad Ali Jinnah demanded a separate state for the Muslims.
14. Reform movements also started among eh depressed classes. B R Ambedkar and Babu Jagjivan Ram brought the depressed classes into the national movement.
15. India gave support to movements abroad. Jawaharlal Nehru was a pioneer in this regard.
16. The Government of India Act of AD 1935 introduced new provisions- a federation, granting of provincial autonomy and dyarchy at the Centre.
17. The Congress swept the polis of AD 1937. It formed ministries in seven provinces.