a. Sprouting of Nationalism:
Growth of nationalism in the nineteenth century was one of the salient features of the Indian history. While the subjugated Indians aspired for political freedom, it was basically the foreign rulers who were responsible for the growth of Indian nationalism.
(1) The introduction of Western education in the nineteenth century provided the intellectual background to the growth of nationalism.
As a consequence of the Western knowledge the educated Indians became familiar with the spirit of democracy, nationalism and liberalism of Europe.
(2) The educated Indians all over the country began to develop a common outlook on the problems of their country. With the growth of a common outlook the necessary condition for the growth of nationalism was fulfilled.
(3) The nineteenth century reform movement that began with Rammohan Roy helped the Indian society in ridding many evils and in promoting a sense of unity. This was essential for the growth of nationalism.
(4) The racial discrimination practised by the British was a major factor behind the growth of nationalism in the nineteenth century.
(5) The contemporary nationalist ideas in Europe and international political events also contributed to the making of Indian nationalism. These were some of the factors responsible for the growth of nationalism in the nineteenth century.
b. Pre-Congress Association:
The Indian Association of Bengal and Poona Sarbajanik Sabha were the two pre-Congress Associations.