How would you identify the various streams in the Indian national movement? Under which Act was the Provincial Ministry formed in 1937? What was the success of the Congress Ministries?
a. Several Streams:
During the 30s and 40s of the Twentieth century it is possible to identify other streams besides the Congress mainstream in the Indian national movement. While there are historians who speak of as many as seven, eight or even nine streams. It is reasonable to restrict these, at the first instance, to three streams.
First was the movement centering the Indian National Congress? In fact, Congress was the most important and effective instrument in India’s struggle for freedom. It was a platform in which several opinions were accommodated. The second stream may be identified as the leftist movement. Leftism of the period inspired the Congress.
And with the establishment of the Communist Party of India (1925) the peasants, workers and the toiling masses were involved in the freedom movement. The anti-British extreme movement by the national revolutionary’s may be stated to be the third stream along which flowed India’s struggle for freedom.
b. The Act:
The Government of India Act 1935 provided in it the provision for election to the Provincial legislatures.
c. Success of the Congress Ministries:
The Congress Ministers in the seven out of eleven Provinces were formed in 1937. With limited powers at their disposal the Congress Ministries did a lot of things for the people of the country.
Firstly, the Congress Ministries paid particular attention to the improvement of education in all its stages. Encouragement was given to the opening of educational institutions.
Secondly, sincere attempts were made to improve the condition of public health.
Thirdly, for the benefit of the peasantry new tenancy laws were passed.
Fourthly , greater freedom was allowed to the press so that they could point out the weakness in the governance.