In 1867, the Prarthna Samaj was founded in Bombay. Mahadev Govinda Ranade joined it. Its religious and social reforms were similar to those of the Brahmo Samaj. Renade also took part in the activities of Sarvajanik Sabha, which was a leading organization for mobilizing public opinion. The Indian Social Conference was formed in 1887. Some of the demands of the conference were the abolition of caste, inter cast marriages, rising of the marriageable age, discourage of polygemy, widow remarriage and women’s education.

The awakening of the oppressed castes in Maharashtra was played by Jotirao Govind Rao Phule. He challenged the supremacy of the Brahmanas and the authority of scriptures. In 1873, he formed the Satyashodhak Samaj to mobilize the lower castes. He also spread girls’ education for the oppressed class. In Andhra Pradesh Kandukuri Veeresalingam started the movement in support of widow remarriage and girls education. Shri Narayana Guru led the movement against caste oppression in Kerala. He founded the Shri Narayana Dharma Paripalana yogam to carry on the awakening of the oppressed castes.