In 1905, Lord Curzon, the then Viceroy of India, divided the province of Bengal into two parts. East Bengal comprised 15 eastern districts, having a Muslim majority. The rest of Bengal, called the West Bengal had a Hindu majority.
The people of Bengal greatly reacted to the partition of Bengal.
I. They did not agree with the statement of Lord Curzon that the division was made purely on administrative grounds.
II. They clearly saw the aim of the Britishers to break the unity of the Bengali people on communal lines and thus weaken the nationalist movement.
III. The division of Bengal provoked an agitation and angry reaction of Bengali people. It created widespread indignation all over the country.
IV. A movement was launched to end the partition. It was led by both ‘extremist’ and ‘moderate’ leaders.
V. The day of partition was observed as a day of mourning all over Bengal. All business came to a standstill. On the suggestion of the great poet Rabindranath Tagore the day was also observed as a day of unity and solidarity of the people,
VI. During the movement to lend the partition of Bengal, new methods of struggle were adopted. These methods, which included Swadeshi and Boycott, brought in participation by the common people in the anti-British political activities. The aims of nationalist movement also became more radical than before.