Discontent of the Indian people found expression first in the contemporary literatures. A deep sense of the patriotism reflected in the literature prepared the ground for the beginning of national movement.

Thus the growth of national consciousness in the nineteenth century was also a period of development of regional languages like Hindi, Urdu, Bengali, Tamil, Assamees, etc.

In Bengal a true and deep love for the motherland found expression in the writings of Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay. Bankim Chandra addressed motherland as ‘Mother’.

This identification inspired the Indians with a deep sense of nationalism. Of the writers, other than Bankim Chandra, who inspired nationalism mention, may be made of Dinabandhu Mitra, Rajanikanta Gupta and many others.


There was the development of patriotic literature also in the other parts of the country.

Ranade, Gopal Hari Desmukh, Bharatendu Harishchandra and many others created the ground for national consciousness through their literary compositions.