Even functions of the Extremist leaders did not satisfy the Indian youths. They came forward to oppose the British by following the way of violence through pistol and bomb. The oppression and tyranny of the government was to be dealt with one point programme i.e. murder of the British officers, involved in the atrocity.

Revolutionary activities in Maharashtra:

In 1897 at Poona, the Chapeau brothers (Deodar and Balkrishana Chapeau) shot Lt. Yarest dead though Mr. Rand, the president of the Plague Committee was their target. The two brothers were arrested, convicted and hanged; Bal Gangadhar Tikal was jailed for provoking terrorism by his writings.

Revolutionary activities in Bengal:


Bengal soon became the centre of terrorist activities. In 1908, Paula Chaka and Khudiram Bose threw bomb to Mr. Kennedy’s carriage assuming that of Mr. Kingsford, the judge of Muzaffarpur who had. Previously awarded capital punishment to several youths was travelling in it. Two ladies were dead and Paula shot himself dead before he was captured by the police. Khudiram was tried and hanged.

Aurobindo Ghosh, in Calcutta, organized the revolutionaries and tried to strike terror in the mind of the British authority by killing some British officers. In Aliped conspiracy case, Aurobindo, his brother Barinas and others were captured and tried. During that time Namenda Gosling, the approver of the case was shot dead.

The Public Prosecutor and Deputy Superintendent of police met the same fate. Aurobindo was acquitted but his brother and the others were deported to Andaman. Sateen Base and Kanai Dutta who had killed the approver were hanged. From Manic Tale some bomb, cartridges etc. were seized. Baghdad Jain, another revolutionary was killed with an encounter with the police in 1915 after being seriously wounded. He was involved in the Dacca conspiracy case.

Revolutionary activities in Punjab:


Punjab also became a centre of revolutionary activities under the leadership of Lala Hardball, Avado Bihar, Amir Chandra, J.M. Chattered etc. The revolutionary associations like ‘Kitty Kinas Party’ and ‘Naujawan Sabha’ were established.

Chandra Escher Azad established ‘Hindustan Republic Association’ which was later on known as Hindustan Socialist Republic Association. Its leading members like Bhagat Singh, Raj guru and Such Dev were hanged for their involvement in the Kokoris train robbery, throwing bomb at the Assembly hall and other terrorist activities. Punjab became a shouldering volcano for the British regime.

The Europeans were assaulted at Lahore; Riots took place at Rawalpindi under the leadership of Alit Singh assisted by Slayed Hider Rizal and Aga Haier.

Revolutionary activities in Madras:


The visit of Begin Chandra Pal to Madras and his inflammatory speech inspired the youth of Madras. Chidambaram Pilli advocated complete independence for India. He was arrested. In protest, the crowd became violent in Tuticorin and Tirunelveli and police had to open fire to disperse the crowd, and the officer who had ordered firing, was killed by Vanchi Ayer.

Revolutionary activities elsewhere in India:

Western India also witnessed revolutionary terrorism at several places. In 1909 Jackson, the Magistrate of Nasik who was very much unpopular type was shot dead- The Ahmedabad bomb case and the Sitar conspiracy were notable terrorist activities in western India.

Rasbehari Bose, a clerk at Dehra Dun threw bomb at Lord Harding, the Viceroy. The bomb killed his attendants. Chandra Escher Azad was shot dead at Alfred Park in Allahabad in an encounter with British police in 1931. U.P., Bihar, Bengal, Maharashtra, Punjab etc. became centers of revolutionary activities.


Revolutionary activities abroad:

Revolutionary activities continued abroad with full swing. After the murder of District Magistrate Rand, Shamir Krishna Vera of Kathiawar went to London and started Home Rule Society in due course of time.

S. K. Rena, who-hailed from Gujarat, settled in Paris and supported Shamir Krishna Vera. V. D. Savarkar went to London in 1906 and became a member of ‘Indian Society’ which promoted revolutionary terrorism. Madam Lai Donora one of the members of this society, killed Sir William Curzon Willy who was the A.D.C. of the Secretary of State of India.

Among the revolutionary activities abroad, the role of Guard Party can never be denied. Lala Arrayal, a revolutionary young man from Punjab established Guard Party and also published a weekly paper The Guard. It aimed at revolution in India to be free India from the British clutch. He was ordered by the U.S.A. Government to leave the country due to anti-British propaganda.


During the World War I, the revolutionaries abroad sought the help of the German government and also the Muslims of Iran, Iraq and Afghanistan to overthrow the British regime in India. Sardar Alit Singh and Sufi Amber Prasad went to the Middle East to unite the defeated Indian soldiers and get their support.

Raja Mahendra Prate led an Indo-German mission to Afghanistan and established a free government there. The Kawabata Mara case fanned the fire or revolutionary terrorism. This Japanese ship which took revolutionary. Sikhs to Canada was denied landing in the port in Canada and returned to Calcutta. The passengers revolted not to board train for Punjab arranged by the British government and in the revolt some of them died. This inspired terrorist movement in Punjab.

The revolutionary terrorists committed political acuities in Amritsar, Jullundur and Ludhiana in Punjab. The revolutionary activities lasted abroad till 1945 when Sub has Chandra Bose met a mysterious death”.

The revolutionary activities, both inside the country and abroad, failed because it was confined only to the educated middle class people in India.


The lack of sympathy of the upper class people, various organizational and financial problems faced by the revolutionaries, apathy of Indian National Congress towards this militant nationalist, British repressive measure, appearance of Gandhiji were certain causes which were responsible for the failure of revolutionary activities.