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Guru Teg Bahadur was the 9th Guru. He inherited the hostility of Aurangzeb and it was mainly on account of the intervention of Mirza Raja Ram Singh that Aurangzeb did not take any serious action against him. Different accounts are given regarding the reasons which were ultimately responsible for the action taken against him by Aurangzeb.
One view is that the Guru became the target because he took up the cause of the Kashmiri Brahmins who approached him to save them from religious persecution. It is stated that Mughal Governor of Kashmir had converted a large number of Hindus to Islam and murdered those who had resisted.
Consequently, the Kashmiri Brahmins approached Guru Teg Bahadur for protection. After a lot of thinking, the Guru asked the Kashmiri Brahmins to go to Delhi and tell Aurangzeb that Guru Teg Bahadur was the protector of the Hindus and if he became a Muslim, the other Hindus would also follow him. The Kashmiri Brahmins did as they were asked to do. Aurangzeb sent his messengers to bring the Guru to Delhi. The Guru took some time to reach Delhi as he met his followers on the way.
This created suspicion in the mind of the Mughals. A search was made for him and he was arrested at Agra and brought to Delhi where he was put in prison, Aurangzeb asked him either to embrace Islam or show some miracle. On his refusing to do so, the Guru was put to death. Another version is that the orders for the arrest of Guru Teg Bahadur were issued because he had laid waste the whole of the Punjab.
According to Indu Bhushan Banerjee, “the Guru suffered not because of political reasons but because of his religious activities. The Guru was of a peaceful disposition and he led the life of a saint. It is too much to believe that he was responsible for laying waste the whole of the Punjab and action had to be taken against him on account of that.”
According to Dr. GC. Narang. “His execution was universally regarded by the Hindus as a sacrifice for their faith. The whole of the Punjab began to burn with indignation and revenge,” The execution of Guru Teg Bahadur revolutionized the life of his son, Guru Gobind Singh.