Cultural Condition of India at the eve of Ghori’s Invasion


Rajput rulers patronized and encouraged Architecture, dancing, music and literature etc. During this period many works were composed in Sanskrit and regional languages. The capital of Paramara’s Ujjain and Vikramshil and Vikrampur etc. were important centers of education. Buddhist monasteries were also performing a useful function in this direction. Many of the Rajput kings themselves composed literary pieces.

King Bhoj of Dhar was a great scholar. The famous Chalukyan minister, Bhima was not only a patron of scholars but also a great writer himself. The jain scholars of the period also made an important contribution. Most famous amongst them was Hemchandra who composed in Apabhramsh language also apart from Sanskrit. After the Brahmins rose to power Sanskrit took the place of Apabhramsh and Prakrat among higher classes. Despite of this language which were very near the popular language remained prevalent and works were composed in them.

Among then popular languages like Rajasthani, Brij, Bangla, Marathi, Hindi language etc. of Northern India developed. The Rajput king got constructed many temples, Rajgri has, swimming pools and water reservoirs for irrigation. In south India also this was the period of flowering of Indian civilization and culture. In the Chola period many temples were constructed in the Dravidian style.


The Kailashnath temple of Kanchipuram is its best example. After the destine of the Cholas, Chalukyas and Hoysolas continued the task of construction of temples. Many temples were constructed during this period in Dharwar district and in Helevid, the capital of Hoysalas. The most beautiful among the Hoysaleshwar temple. It is the best example of the Chalukyan style.

In this period apart from statues of Gods and Goddesses, Yakshas and Yakashinis such ‘chitrapatas’ were also constructed in the temples in which various aspects of life like love, war, music, dance, hunting etc. are portrayed. They prove the deep relationship existing between social and religious life during the period, for the common people the temple was not only a place of worship but also a centre of social and cultural life.

In South India works were composed in Sanskrit, Tamil, Telugu and Kannada languages. The period between the latter half of the 11th century and the beginning of the 12th also referred to as the age of Kamban, was the golden age of Tamil language. The Ramayan composed by Kamban is a classic of Tamil language.

In this period the literary form of Kannada language came into prominance. The chalukyas and the Hoysalas extended their patronage to the Kannada litreature also along with the Telugu literature. A scholar, Nannaiya began translation of the Mahabharata into Telugu in the time of the Chalukyas. His work was completed by Tikkana in the 13th century.

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