Brief notes on the Fiscal System of Mughal Empire


The major heads of imperial revenue were land revenue, customs duties, mint, and inheritance, tribute paid by feudatory princes, presents, monopolies and indemnities. Of these the most important was land revenue.

Considerable revenue was derived from customs and inland transit duties. The duties on foreign imports were levied at all ports. The administrative officer of a port was called shah-bandar.

The Mughal coinage reached a high standard in respect of purity of metal, fulness of weight and artistic execution. Coins were made of gold, silver and copper. Apart from the imperial mint in Delhi there were provincial mints.


The gold and silver used for coinage had to be imported from abroad gold from East Africa (through the Portuguese settlements at Sofala and Mozambique) and silver from other countries.

There was a regular department of the state called bait-ul- mal where the property of all nobles and officers of the state (as also the property of all persons dying without heirs) had to be kept in deposit after their death.

The revenues of the subah were drawn from assignments of land (jagirs) granted to the subah-dar, diwan and other officials in lieu of cash salaries, miscellaneous taxes and cesses, transit dues and duties, fines, presents etc.

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