(a) The river valley civilizations had complex religious beliefs. Though each civilization had its own Pantheon of Gods and Goddesses, certain reli­gious beliefs were common to all of them.

(b) Nature worship was common to all. The humped bull, Pasupati, and many other animals like rhino, tiger, etc., were held sacred by the Harappan. Also, the Mother Goddess.

(c) The Egyptians worshipped the Sun and Moon God, the God of Floods and God of the other world, i.e., the world of the dead. Animals and birds like cow, crocodile, jackal, hawk were considered sacred.

(d) The Chinese also believed in Nature worship and their chief God was called ‘The Ruler Above’.


(c) All the civilizations believed in Totems which were represented by sym­bols of birds and animals.

(d) There was belief in life after death and the dead were buried along with their belongings. The Mesopotamians and Chinese did ancestor worship as the dead were considered to be the protectors of the family and there­fore, buried in the backyard of the houses.

(e) The Egyptians preserved the bodies of the dead as Mummies in Pyramids or tombs of the Pharaohs, along with their belongings, as they believed that both the body and the soul lived after death, though in a different way, whereas the others believed that after death, the body perishes and only, the soul lives.

(f) Due to the importance of religion in a man’s life, the priests occupied a position of pre-eminence in the society. The Chinese believed in Oracles or holy men who were supposed to be in close touch with the Gods, and could predict the future of a person.