(a) Bronze Age civilizations mark a distinct stage in the progress of man’s life and the beginning of recorded history.

(b) In the Stone Age, man from a nomad, hunter and food gatherer became settler, food producer and domesticator of animals and his life centered on villages and small towns. On the other hand, there was rise of cities and states in the Bronze Age with governments that made and en­forced laws over all the people within the state. Cities of Harappa, Mahenjodaro, summer, Babylonia and Memphis are famous for this.

(c) States are formed only when human societies reach a certain staged development. Large states were ruled by Kings, who kept huge armies and maintained a large officer class to assist them in enforcing laws and de­fending the State. The division of society into classes is a typical feature of Bronze Age which was absent in the Stone Age.

(d) In the Pre-historic times there were no economic differences between men as everyone either hunted or gathered food and lived in either caves or mud and thatch houses. But with growth in civilization occupation became specialized and society became divided into upper and lower classes and each class had different rights assigned to it. Thus inequalities emerged which were absent in the Neolithic cultures. The common people like artisans, peasants and slaves were exploited by the Kings, nobles and priests. In Neolithic times the concept of private property was absent and all land was jointly held by the community.


(e) Division of labour became more specialized in the Bronze Age with the emergence of new skills and metallurgy, textiles, glassware, and pottery,

(f) The art of script writing was a revolutionary advance in the Bronze Age which was absent in the Neolithic times.

(g) Giving the world a systematic knowledge in every field of human activity was another revolutionary advance of the Bronze Age. Even religious ideas were formed more systematically.

(h) Stone Age tools had limited diversity and uses, whereas Bronze Age tools were more efficient, varied and had better utility. This helped to bring about an Urban Revolution.