How to provide treatment to a wounded person?

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A wound is a break in the continuity of the tissues of lire body which thus permits the escape of blood and the entrance of disease-producing germs of other injurious agents. Wounds may be classified as follows:

(i) Incised wounds, which are caused by a sharp instrument such as a razor, and bleed freely because the blood-vessels are “clean cut”.

(ii) Lacerated wounds, which have torn and ire, Lar edges. They are caused by such things as machinery, a piece of shell or the claws of an animal. As the blood-vessels are torn through, lacerated wounds bleed less freely than incised wounds.

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(iii) Contused wounds, which are accompanied by bruising of the tissues are caused by a direct blow by some blunt instrument or’ by crushing.

(iv) Punctured wounds, which have comparatively small openings, but may be very deep and are caused by a stab from any sharp-pointed instru­ment, such as a needle, knife, or bayonet. The bleeding or hemorrhage from the various type of wounds may vary in intensity from severe to slight. Severe hemorrhage comes from a torn artery or vein or both combined. If there is bleeding from artery the blood spurt out in jets and it is bright red in color while the bleeding from vein is dark red in color and it flows in a brisk continuous stream. Slight hemorrhage comes usually from injured capillaries and may flow in a continuous stream or merely ooze from all parts of the wound.

Treatment of wounds:

(i) The first and foremost attention should be given to control the hemorrhage. The simplest way is to apply direct pressure with the thumbs or figures, to the part of the wound from which the blood is coming If the bleeding point is not readily visible grapes the whole wound area and squeeze it tightly If bleeding cannot be con­trolled by the application of direct pressure, indirect pressure may be applied to the appro­priate pressure point by which an artery can be compressed against the underlying bone to pre­vent the flow of blood beyond that point. If it is necessary to maintain indirect pressure for more than a short time, constrictive bandage may be applied around the limb

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(ii) The parson should be placed in a suitable position bearing in mind that blood escapes with less force when the patient sits and still less when the patient lies down.

(iii) The bleeding part should be elevated except in the case of a fractured limb.

(iv) The wound should be exposed by removing as little clothing as possible.

(v) The foreign bodies which are visible can be re­moved or picked out or wiped off with a piece of clean dressing.

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(vi) The wound should be covered by the sterile dressing, pad or bandage.

(vii) If there is formation of blood clot it should not be removed or disturbed as a result there will be more bleeding from the wound.

(viii) The injured part should be immobilized as far as practicable. When the wound is near a joint, the joint should be immobilized by using splints mainly the knee joint.

(ix) If the wound is gracious and there is no control hemorrhage, then the person may be transferred to the hospital for further treatment and advice by the efficient doctor.

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In order to avoid different type of accidents which ‘occur in our daily life proper care should be taken in the Home, Road and in the School.

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