Brief notes on Typhoid (Signs and Symptoms, Treatment)

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This serious disease in adult or child is caused by another bacterium – Salmonella typhus’s.

Signs and Symptoms

The most obvious sign of typhoid is a low grade fever lasting more than five days. Headache and the general condition of malaise are also indicative of typhoid. While the child feels increasingly ill, diarrhea may manifest itself; slow pulse; abdominal discomfort; delirium etc.

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Gradually, the fever will rise to alarming heights, and the child will appear toxic, with a brown and furred tongue. There will be pronounced loss of appetite and dehydration.

Causes

The bacterium causing typhoid is spread through contaminated food and water, milk with sewage. Its incubation period is ten to fourteen days.

Pathology

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(a) Enlargement of spleen.

(b) Inflammation of gall bladder.

(c) Acute Myocarditis.

(d) Inflammation and abscesses of the bones.

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Complications

(a) Intestinal Hemorrhage.

(b) Intestinal Perforation.

(c) Meteorism.

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(d) Acute Myocarditis.

(e) Bronchopneumonia.

(f) Acute Cholecystitis.

(g) Thrombophlebitis.

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Treatment

(a) Isolation Procedures.

(b) General Nursing.

(c) Diet: Diluted milk, eggs beaten in milk, fluids, rusks, butter, etc.

(d) Specific Treatment: –

Chloramphenicol is an effective drug; it reduces the toxaemia and helps temperature to fall to normal in three to four days.

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