Earthquakes are caused by the shaking shifting of the Earth’s surface. They occur suddenly and their impact is limited in terms of time and space. This means that only certain places in a country may experience an earthquake and it is seldom felt for more than a few minutes. But depending on the intensity of the earthquake, it can be a major national disaster, causing grave damage to life and property in just a few minutes.
Floods are caused mainly by the overflowing of rivers and canals due to heavy rains. They occur with some element of warning and their impact is felt for longer durations. Floods cause more damage to property than life and are a major disaster for a country.
Cyclones are storms with winds moving inwards in a circular motion with great speeds. They can cause major damage to life and property. They may not last for very long but their impact is felt till long afterwards.
Droughts are caused by very long periods of low or no rainfall. There is a scarcity of water. Plants, animals and human beings suffer due to the lack of water. Droughts last for a much longer time, sometimes months together. Their impact is felt on the people and area for a long time and is of a more lasting nature.