There are ten major terrestrial biomes based on vegetation formation classes:

(1) Equatorial and tropical rainforest

(2) Tropical Savanna

(3) Mid-latitude broad leaf and mixed forest


(4) Needle-leaf forest and montane forest

(5) Temperate rainforest

(6) Mediterranean shrublands

(7) Mid-latitude grasslands


(8) Warm desert and semi-desert

(9) Cold desert and semi-desert

(10) Arctic and Alpine Tundra

(i) Arctic Tundra


(ii) Alpine Tundra

It is worthwhile to note that the terrestrial natural vegetation as described above falls into major structural divisions also known as the biochores such as forest biochores, savanna biochores, grassland biochores and desert biochores.

The plant unit associated with the each biochore is called formation, and every biochore comprises one or more such formations.

For example, the equatorial rainforest, monsoon forest, temperate rainforest, summer green deciduous forest etc. are the forest biochores. Similarly other biochores has one or more formations.


For the locational and climatic aspects of different biomes described as under, the readers are advised to see the chapter 39 dealing with Climatic Types. This has been done to avoid repetition.