The three main rivers of the Northern plains are the Satluj, Ganga and Brahmaputra. They divided the plains into three river basins. The three river basins are :-
1. The Satluj Basin:
The Satluj River along with its main tributary, the Beas, flows towards the south-west. It joins the river Indus in Pakistan. Which finally flows into the Arabian Sea? The Satluj river basins are very fertile. The main crops grown here are wheat, rice, cotton and sugarcane. The Bhakra Dam is built across the Satluj River. Amritsar, Jalandhar, Ludhiana, and Ambala are the important cities of this basin.
2. The Ganga Basin:
The Ganga is the most important river in the Northern plains. The river originates as Bhagirathi from a glacier called Gangotri, in the Himalayas. On its way down the hills, Alaknanda and Mandakini rivers join Bhagirathi. The combined waters of these three rivers become the mighty Ganga. It enters the plains as a big river near Rishikesh.
Many big and small rivers join the Ganga in the plains. The river Yamuna joins Ganga at Allahabad. This place is called Sangam.
Many Himalayan rivers, such as the Gandak, Gomti, Ghaghra and Kosi, join Ganga on its journey eastwards. The Chambal, Sind, Betwa and Son rivers join the Ganga from its southern side.
The Ganga flows through the states of Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and west Bengal, it splits into two branches.
One branch is the Hugli, which, flows through the city of Kolkata. The other branch enters Bangladesh and is known as the Padma. There are many holy cities in the Ganga basin. Find their names.
3. The Brahmaputra basin:
The Brahmaputra River rises in Tibet and enters India from the east. It flows through a narrow valley in Assam. Here, the river is always flooded in the rainy season. It enters Bangladesh and joins River Padma. The Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers together from the largest delta in the world before flowing into the Bay of Bengal. This area is known as Sunder bans.
The rivers coming from the Himalayas have plenty of water throughout the year. The snow and ice melt during the summer and the water flows into the rivers.
The Northern Plains are heavily populated as the area is very fertile and produces a large quantity of food grain. It can hence support a large population.
A large number of cities have developed in the Northern Plains. A number of big and small factories have come up along the banks of the rivers. Their waste products flowing into the river have made the water polluted. All of us must help the government in keeping these rivers free from pollution. Human as well as animal life will be in danger if these rivers do not remain clean.