Power resources include hydro-electricity, thermal electricity, atomic energy and the other non-conventional sources of energy. High grade coal mineral oil and nuclear energy minerals are not available in abundance in our country.
So the need of energy of the country is fulfilled by utilizing the water resources in generating hydro-electricity and by generating thermal power utilizing lower grade coal.
The power resources of the country are produced in four different ways; such as:
(1) generation of hydro-electricity by utilizing the flowing water, (2) production of thermal electricity by utilizing coal, mineral oil and natural gas, (3) production of atomic energy by utilizing nuclear energy minerals, (4) other non-conventional energies, such as, solar energy, wind, bio-gas, tidal and geo-thermal energy.
Hydro-electric power is being generated from the multipurpose river darn projects effective in different parts of India. Hydro-electricity has been much developed in the north western and peninsular India which areas are away from the coal-mining areas.
In 1950 a Government organisation named the Central Electricity Authority was constituted. This organisation controls the production and distribution of electricity all over the country and acts as a liaising agency among the State Electricity Boards.
The notable hydro-electric power generation centres of India are the Kona Project (Maharashtra), Metter Project (Tamilnadu). Siva Samurai (Karnataka), Ribald (Uttar Pradesh), Gander and Kosher (Bihar), Chambal Valley Project (Madhya Pradesh) and Harked Project (Orissa).
In addition to it, Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan States get electricity from the Chakra-Nan gal Project, West Bengal and Bihar get electricity from the Deodar Valley Corporation (D.V.C.) and Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka get it from the Tungabhadra Project. Besides these projects, many other hydro-electric projects are working in different parts of the country.
(2) Thermal Electricity:
The thermal power stations of India mainly use coal as a fuel. Besides, some oil and natural gas based thermal power stations have recently been set up in India. The important thermal power stations of the country are at Kothagudem (Andhra Pradesh), Naharkatiya (Assam), Barauni (Bihar), Khombat (Gujarat), Korea (Madhya Pradesh), Encore (Tamilnadu), Santali (West Bengal), Bhatia (Punjab), Badarpur (Delhi) and Talc her (Orissa). Many more small and big thermal power stations are also working in different parts of the country.
(3) Atomic Power Station:
Electricity is generated in atomic power stations by using atomic fuels in the reactors. The first atomic power station of India was operated in 1969 at Tara pore near Bombay. The other notable atomic power stations are Ranapratap Sager near Katha of Rajasthan, Kalpak am of Tamilnadu and at Narrow of Uttar Pradesh.
Other two atomic power stations are in the process at Naira of Karnataka and Kakrapara of Gujarat. Heavy water is used in atomic reactors and so there are heavy water plants at Kota of Rajasthan, Baroda of Gujarat, Tuticorin of Tamilnadu and Talc her of Orissa.
(4) Non-Conventional Power Resources:
Projects are being undertaken in India to utilize the non-conventional resources of energy like solar energy, wind, tidal and gee-thermal energy in view of scarcity of mineral oil and atomic energy. The solar energy is being conserved for lighting at night.
Electricity is being generated by the help of wind mills on the sea-shore at Puri town (of course, it is de funk at present). Energy is being produced by means of wind-mills in different parts of the country. Tidal energy is being utilized in Keechi and coast of Cambay and in the Sundarbans of West Bengal with the aid of the U.N.O.
Power Development Agency the programme of production and utilisation of the geo-thermal energy has been taken up in the western Himalayas and in the west coast of India. Moreover, bio-gas plants are being developed all over the country for cooking and lighting with the aid of Khadi and Village Industry Commission. The demand of energy in our country can be fulfilled to a great extent by the proper utilisation of non-conventional power resources.