Impact of Monsoon Climate of India on Agriculture
India is a Monsoon land. Besides it is basically an agricultural country. Monsoon climate influences agricultural crops in a big way as under:
(i) India is primarily an agricultural country. About 75% of the total population directly or indirectly earns livelihood from agriculture. Growth and development of Indian agriculture is mainly dependent on Monsoon climate.
(ii) Climatic diversities have led to differential cropping patterns. Both tropical and temperate climates allow agricultural crops to be raised here without any difficulty. Agricultural crops include rice, wheat, jawar-bajra, cotton, tea and oilseeds.
(iii) High temperatures have resulted in ever growing seasons: Agricultural crops are raised throughout the year.
(iv) Sudden rise in temperatures in summer culminates in less and partially grown grains. Hence our production of food grains is inferior in quality.
(v) Western depressions cause rains in the North-western part of the country in winter. It is ideal for wheat cultivation.
(vi) Dry Summer causes dearth of fodder for animals. We have to provide for this period.
(vii) Uncertainty and unevenness of rainfall causes damages to agricultural crops. It also creates twin problems of floods and famines in the country.
(viii) Mosquitoes breed in large numbers in rainy season, causing Malaria. Other diseases which cause anxiety in this season are Cholera and Diphtheria.