At the time of Independence, India inherited from the British two All-India Services – the Indian Civil Service (ICS) and the Indian Police (IP). These were subsequently renamed the Indian Administrative Service (IAS) and the Indian Police Service (IPS) respectively.
These services were constituted under Article 312 of the Constitution of India and legislation was framed to govern them. Recruitment of officers to the IPS is done by the Central Government on the basis of a competitive examination conducted by the Union Public Service Commission annually.
Depending on the vacancies available, the number of officers selected for the IPS varies every year, with the average intake at approximately 65 each year.
After selection, the officers receive their professional training in the National Police Academy, Hyderabad. The IPS cadre is controlled by the Ministry of Home Affairs of the Government of India. The officers selected to the IPS are allotted to the various state cadres.
They join as Assistant Superintendents of Police and remain on probation for a period of two years, after which they are confirmed as Assistant Superintendents of Police. It is the IPS officers who man the senior posts in the police forces of all States/Union Territories and in Central Police Organisations.
All matters relating to postings or promotions of IPS officers in the states are handled exclusively by the State governments, while similar administrative control is exercised by the central government in respect to officers working under the central government. An IPS officer can be removed or dismissed from service only by the central government.
Indian Police Service (IPS) is one of the three All-India Services constituted under Article 312 of the Constitution of India.
» IPS officers provide senior level leadership to Police Forces both in the States and at the Centre. The all-India character of the Service gives its members a unique advantage of handling specific problems in the States within the overall perspective of national unity and integrity.
» Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) is the cadre controlling authority in respect of the IPS. It is responsible for all policy decisions related to the Service, including cadre structure, recruitments, trainings, cadre allocations, confirmations, empanelment, deputations, pay & allowances, disciplinary matters, etc.
» The Service is organized in 24 State cadres/Joint cadres. There is no separate cadre for Union Government. In every cadre a ‘Central Deputation Reserve’ is built-in for sending the officers on deputations.
The structure of each cadre is jointly reviewed by Government of India and the concerned State Government ordinarily at intervals of every 5 years. In the year 2009, the strength and composition of the cadres of Assam-Meghalaya, Rajasthan, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal were reviewed and finalized. Necessary notifications were also issued.