Deforestation is the removal of the tree crop from land. It has been estimated that due to deforestation, 15-20% of the species because extinct. The reduction in forest cover has been rapid during the proceeding decade. Deforestation is an alarming threat to the economy, quality of life and future of environment.
Deforestation has a major impact on the productivity of our cropland. The main causes of deforestation in India are explosion of human and livestock population, increased requirement of timber and fact wood and enhanced grazing.
The term deforestation is often the source of disagreement between various interest groups. Conservation groups often use broad definition while groups seeking to maintain the status quo often use a narrow definition.
Deforestation defined broadly can include not only conversion to non-forest, but also degradation that reduces forest quality-the density and structure of the trees, the ecological services supplied, the biomass of plants and animals, the species diversity and the genetic diversity. Narrow definition of deforestation is the removal of forest cover to an extent that allows for alternative land use.
Definitions can also be grouped as those which refer to changes in land cover and those which refer to changes in land use.
Land cover measurements often use a per cent of cover to determine deforestation. This type of definition has the advantage in that large areas can be easily measured, for example from satellite photos. A forest cover removal of 90% may still be considered forest in some cases. Under this definition areas that may have few values of a natural forest such as plantations and even urban or suburban areas may be considered forest.
Land use definitions measure deforestations by a change in land use. This definition may consider areas to be forest that are not commonly considered as such. An area can be lacking trees, but still considered a forest. It may be a land designated for forestation or an area designated administratively as forest.
Deforestation levels to manifold increase in soil erosion. The soil actually gets washed thus leading to increased cycles of floods and draught. The growing demands of the cities also destroyed forests. Other causes of deforestation are construction of roads along the mountain (hill road), dam building, agriculturization, urbanization and industrialization.