The advertisers make use of various types of appeals in their ads to influence the consumers.
Chunnawalla and Sethia (1985) classify these appeals as follows: Human needs as Basis for appeals:
Here, Maslow’s basic human need structure is taken as a basis. They are:-
1. Physiological needs or creative comforts – Hunger, Thirst, sets, etc
2. Safety needs – security, protection, etc.
3. Love needs – Affection, belongingness etc.
4. Esteem needs – self – respect, prestige, social approval, Achievement, etc
5. Self – actualization needs – Self – fulfillment, Self – expression etc.
Advertising of food products, LIC, investment sections, housing, development schemes, etc. cater to the needs of food, safety, security, etc. The need for love and affection is satisfied through sex as a means of satisfying both physiological and love needs.
Many advertisements have the prestige appeal. For example, advertisements of furniture, clothing, owning a vehicle or jewellery make the users of such advertised products enjoy prestige which ultimately satisfies their esteem needs.
Broadly speaking appeals are classified into three categories:
Rational appeals are those directed at the thinking process of the audience. They involve some sort of a deliberate reasoning process, which is believed to be acceptable to other members of his social group.
They attempt to show that the product would yield the expected functional benefit. Such as, of better quality, low price, longer life, better performance, ease in use, resale value etc. These are considered buying motives which are normally considered rational under ordinary circumstances.
Emotional appeals are those appeals which are not preceded by careful analysis of the pros and cons of making a buying decision. These appeals stir up some negative or positive emotions which will motivate a person to purchase.
Positive emotional appeals high light product benefits and attributes capable of influencing consumer behaviour. They are love, humour pride, prestige, and joy. Most baby food products have love appeals.
Furniture advertisements highlight comfort and aesthetics. Soft drink or confectionery advertisements have joy and thrill. Humorous message attracts more attention.
Emotional motives employed in advertisements are desire to be different, to attract opposite sex, desire for prestige and desire to conform to existing norms in the society for clothing, housing, and food practices etc.
Moral appeals appeal to the sense of right or wrong of the audience. These are often used in messages to arouse a favourable response to social causes, such as prohibition adult literacy, social forestry, consumer protection, environment protection, women’s rights, rural development, and appeals for generations and so on.
Negative emotional appeal focuses on the loss if one fails to buy the product. For example, dangers of not taking LIC policy, dangers of using unbranded tooth powder, food items etc. They increase the anxiety of a person for not using the product.
Fear appeals are said to be the most important among emotional appeals, and also the most effective.
For example, this appeal is used in advertisement messages of tooth pastes, hair oils, detergents, helmets try to project on the losses that would occur if these products are not used, such as, toothache, loss of hair, fading of the colour of the cloth or injury to the head respectively.
Thus, advertisers influence the consumers through various appeals and change their perceptions and attitudes influencing buying decisions.