Free sample essay on the origin of Ganga Dynasty (India)


The dynastic name of Gangas was borne by two distinct royal families, one ruling in Gangavadi (East Mysore) from about AD 400 and the other in Kalinga from AD 500. The Mysore legends trace the line to an Ikshvaku origin and speak of the migration of its founders from Ujjain, their encounter with the Jain ascetic Simhanandi at Ganga Perun, and their final settlement at Kuvalalapura.

The legends of Kalinga trace there descent ultimately from the kings of the lunar line named Yayati and Turvasu, and more proximately from the Gangas of Kolar. The Ganga’s crest was the elephant.

Konakanivarma (c. AD 400-25), the first ruler of the Jahnaveya kula is said to have belonged to the Kanvayana gotra. He is called dharmamaharajadhiraja. He is supposed to have been initiated into the Jaina doctrine syadavada by Simhanandi at the Parshvanatha basadi in Shravanabelagola. The capital of the early kingdom was located first at Kuvalala (Kolar) and later at Talakad on the Kaveri.


Konkanivarma was succeeded by his son Madhava I (AD 425-50). He has been credited with the preparation of a gloss on Dattakasutra, a treatise on erotics or possibly a sutra on adoption. Madhava I was followed by his son Aryavarman (AD 450- 72). He came to the throne after dividing the kingdom for his brother Krishnavarman with the help of Pallava king Simhavarman. Aryavarman was followed by his son Madhava II alias Simhavarman.

The Ganga king married a Kadamba princess, and the child of this union was Avinita who was anointed as king in his mother’s lap (AD 520). He had a long reign but no events of any importance are recorded during the period. His chief queen was a princess of Punnata, Jyestha by name. His reign lasted till AD 605 when he was succeeded by his son Durvinita (Real name Madhavavarman).

He is claimed to have performed hiranyagarbha to mark his victory over his half- brother. Durvinita gave one of his daughters in marriage to Pulakeshin II. He also succeeded to the Punnata kingdom, whence his mother came, and took the title ‘lord of Punnat’. In the Kavirajamarga of Nripatunga (Amoghavarsha), Durvinita is mentioned as a great prose writer in Kannada, and tradition credits him also with the authorship of a Sanskrit version of the Brihatkatha, a commentary on the 15th canto of Bharavi’s Kiratarjuniya, and a Shabdavatara.

The reigns of Mushkara and Shrivikrama were uneventful. Bhuvikrama ruled from AD 665-79 and took part in Chalukya-Pallava battles. Bhuvikrama was succeeded by his brother Shivamara I (AD 679- 725) whose reign was peaceful. He was followed by his grandson Shripurusha who enjoyed a long reign of 50 years. He also cooperated with the Chalukyas and defeated the Pallava king Parameshvaravarman II.


In the battle of Vilande, Shripurusha seized the royal Pallava umbrella along with the title of Perumanadi. He attacked Pandya Rajasimha I with the help of Chalukya Kirtivarman II. However, the allies suffered a defeat in the battle of Venbai (AD 750). Later, the Rashtrakuta king Krishna I invaded Gangavadi and the Gangas were made feudatories. In the records, Shripurusha is credited with the authorship of a treatise on elephant lore igajashastrd).

Shivamara II succeeded Shripurusha. Shivamara II was for sometime imprisoned by a Rashtrakuta prince and later by the Rashtrakuta king Govinda III. Shivamara II was succeeded by Rajamalla I in 817. He was Shivamara’s nephew. Nitimarga I succeeded him in AD 853 and ruled till 870. From the reign of Shivamara II onwards the Gangas played in the hands of the Rashtrak Pallavas and the Chalukyas. For most of the they were feudatories of the Rashtrakutas.

For period they were free from the Rashtralcutas, w was marked by the assumption of the ti Satyavakya and Nitimarga, alternatively successive rulers, Rajmalla being the fi Satyavakya and his son Ereganga Ranavikrama first Nitimarga. Rajamalla II (AD 870-9 Nimimarga II (AD 907-35), Rajamalla III (AD9J 38), Butunga II (AD 938-61), Marasimha II ( 962-74), Rajamalla IV (AD 974-85) and, fina Rakkash Ganga (AD 985-1024) were a feudatories of the Rashtrakutas.

They fought w on behalf of them as well. Rajamalla IV’s reign famous for his general Chamundaraya who was1 valiant general, master of Kannada, Sanskrit a Prakrit he wrote the famous Kannada work, Chamundaraya Pur ana or Trisasti Lakshanamahapurana, in AD 978 which contai an account of the twenty four Jain Tirthanka He also erected, in AD 983, a colossal statue o Gomatesvara at Shravanabelgola.


With Rakk ” Ganga, the Ganga rule came to an end as a res of the conquest of Gangavadi by Rajaraja Choi Rakkasa Ganga patronized Nagavarma, who1 composed Chandombudhi, a work on prosody in Kannada. Hemasena alias Vidyadhananjaya wro Raghavapandaviya, which narrates the story of both the epics through puns

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