Under the Constitution, the Legislature of the Union is called Parliament. The Indian Parliament is constituted on the basis of the principle of bicameralism, that is, the legislature having two Houses or Chambers.

As the Constitution established a federal system of government, there was almost unanimity among the framers for achieving a balance between the direct representation of people and the representation of units as such, by setting up two Houses, one representing the people as a whole and the other the federated units.

The two Houses of Parliament are the House of the People (the Lok Sabha) and the Council of States (the Rajya Sabha). The names of the Houses fairly reflect the character of their composition. The House of the People is composed of directly elected representatives on the basis of adult franchise and territorial constituencies. The Council of States is composed mainly of representatives of the States elected by the State Assemblies.

As has been pointed out earlier, the President is an integral part of Parliament. Under Article 79, Parliament shall consist of the President and the two Houses. Making the President a part of Parliament is in conformity with the principles and traditions of Parliamentary government.


In England, Parliament is constituted of the King, the House of Lords and the House of Commons. In contrast, the President of the United States is not a part of the American Congress.

Whereas the presidential system of government emphasises the separation of the executive and legislative powers, the parliamentary system lays stress on the intimate relationship and the interdependence of the executive and the legislature. Members of the Government are at the same time members of the legislature.

Although the President himself is not a member of the legislature, his participation in the legislative process is ensured by making him a part of Parliament. The fact that he is the chief executive authority and that the executive power is co-extensive with the legislative power also makes it necessary that he should become an integral part of the legislature.