5 Major Problems of Food Security in India

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To maintain the need of food for the growing population and to meet the minimum food requirement, various steps have been taken in these directions.

(i) Biotechnology is used to modify different crops genetically to increase the yield per hectare.

(ii) Genetically modified crops require less water compared to other crops.

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(iii) Biotechnology made the crops more resistant to insects’ pests and diseases.

(iv) Biotechnology benefits both rich and poor farmers and make the environment safe and free from pollution.

Problems:

(i) In spite of surplus food-grains stock, it is also a reality that a vast number of people do not have enough money to feed themselves twice a day. Even in 1999-), 20% of the people of India were below the poverty line.

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(ii) Though the percentage of people below poverty line declined substantially from 36% in 1993-94 to 20% in 1999-2000, yet in absolute number it was 210 million which by no means is a small number.

(iii) There has been a gradual shift from cultivation of food crops to cultivation of fruits, vegetables, oil seeds, and crops which act also as industrial raw materials. This had led to the reduction in net sown area under cereals, millets and pulses.

(iv) The use of more and more land for construction of factories, ware-houses and shelters has reduced the land under cultivation and now fertile land for farming, is no longer available.

(y) The productivity of land has started showing a declining trend. Fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides, which once showed dramatic results, are now being held responsible for reducing fertility of the soil.

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