As a country with its geographical position right before the sea ‘Bay of Bengal’, and also with several rivers originated from Himalaya, and flowing to the Bay of Bengal through different channels inside, Bangladesh is one of the most flood affected country in the world. To many developed countries over the world, Bangladesh has its key identity as for flood affected country. Flood is one very regular natural disaster which comes almost every year. It is mostly the coastal area of the country which has got the most impact of such flooding, but such disaster often shaken even the capital and other major cities, as well. According to the statistical data from different sources, almost 18 percent of the country has got flooded each year, in Bangladesh. The deadliest loss comes as the loss of life, which is around five thousand people, per year, caused only due to flood. Almost, seven million residences have got destroyed as the flood wiped out these on its way.
Types of floods in Bangladesh:
With so many different reasons, Bangladesh normally faces the following types of floods at a random basis:
1. Monsoon Floods:
Monsoon floods are one very frequent flood type, here in Bangladesh. It comes in action when the main rivers of the country are getting a tendency of rises in the flow of water. There are three main rivers in Bangladesh. The affect of monsoon flood has gone devastating, when the flow of water get rises for all three rivers, at the same time.
The water rises speed is comparatively slow in the case of such monsoon flood. But it stays for 10 to 20 days of period or even more in some cases.
2. Floods, which are caused by storm Surges:
This particular type of flood attack affects mainly the coastal area of Bangladesh. Humid cyclones are one key reason, which triggers such flooding. There are some particular periods during which these cyclones have formed and stimulate the flood as it’s after effect. These yearly periods are:
- 2 months of the year, which are October, and November, known as post monsoon period.
- Three months (April, May, and June), known as pre monsoon period.
3. Blaze Floods:
Rapid depression is one main cause, which causes a prickly rise in the flow of the rivers. Mainly this has seen to get happened for the eastern and southern rivers of the country. Flood due to such causes are coming with their devastating speed which caused severe damage to hundreds, and thousands of houses, and also the crops of vast agricultural land, as well.
4. Local Floods:
It is mainly the rainfall, which causes such local floods, that affects the vast area of many regions of Bangladesh. The problem goes severe, when such extreme rainfall exceeds the capacity of regular drainage functionalities, and caused the congestion in many core drainage systems over the country.
The major reasons behind such regular, drastic, and devastating floods in Bangladesh are mainly the geographical position, and heavy rainfall. Different government has taken many disaster management approaches, and implemented several mechanisms to deal with such natural disaster through ‘Disaster Management Ministry’ of the GOB (Government of Bangladesh).