What are the important stages of Hydrosere or Hydrarch Succession?


This takes place in areas where water is present in abundance. This type of succession usually takes places in ponds, streams, swamps etc. Plants found in such areas require large amount of water and are called hydrophytes. Animal communities would include the fishes, the water beetles, and the fresh water concentrates.

As succession continues in such areas gradually the environment becomes drier. Over long periods of time, the succession in these areas produces a swampy region. Succession without interruption in the swamp, in course of time, produces a terrestrial community. The various stages are:

(i) Phytoplankton Stage


This constitutes the pioneer community. Some blue-green algae, diatoms and bacteria etc. are the first organisms to colonise the primitive medium of the pond.

(ii) Rooted Submerged Stage

As a result of death and decomposition of phytoplankton and their mixing with the slit, brought from the surrounding land by rain waters and by wave action of pond water, there develops a soft mud at the bottom of the pond.

This new habitat, which tends to be a bit light penetration may occur easily, becomes suitable for the growth of rooted hydrophytes. After their death and decay, the water level decreases and this new habitat’ replace these plants giving way to another type of plants.


(iii) Rooted Floated Stages

They all are rooted hydrophytes with their large leaves floating on the water surface.1 water level by now become very much decreased. The decomposing organic matter is for

(iv) Reed Swamp Stage

This stage is also known as the amphibious stage. The plants have well developed rhizomes and form very dense vegetation. The water level is by now very much reduced and finally become unsuitable for these plants.


(v) Sedge-meadow stage

The mesic conditions approach the area and marshy vegetation disappears gradually.

(vi) Woodland Stage

By the time of disappearance of marshy vegetation, the soil becomes drier for most time the year. Terrestrial plants now invade this area.


(vii) Forest Stage

This is a climax community. Several trees rapidly invade the woodland community.

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