During the 18th century, Persian was the official language whereas learned Hindu and Hindu community expressed in classical languages Sanskrit and Arabic respectively. Persian was used by both of them. The non-classical often called Dravidian and Indo-Aryan.

Though had a well developed poetic tradition, but prose was still in its embryonic stage, thereby remaining unharnessed to the expression of complex and scientific thought. The replacement of the Mughal tradition by British paramountry in the time of Lord Wellesley and the policy in favour of English education in 1835, fostered important changes in all these language, in some earlier than in others.

There was no standard language or uniform script and many dialects were intermixed in each of the linguistic regions of Indian, until the British administrations of Sind devised in 1851 an “Arabic Sindhi Script” that come to be used by both Hindus and Muslims for printing their books. Language was more diverse than script.

In around 19th century “Khari Bali” the dialect spoken around Delhi and Meerut came to provide the basis of a standard language With the standardisation of script and language the growth of printed pros’ literature, beginning around 1800, gathered momentum, as the spread of education depend prevailing in Victorian England, such as novel or sonnet were adopted with great enthusiasm.


According to historical of Malayan literature, the whole range of Malyalam literature owes their origin to English literature. This is except the folk literature the centuries in its own channel- unaffected by the imported forms.