India was partitioned in 1947 into two dominions, India and Pakistan.
It was a saddest event in history of India. The fighters of freedom struggle had never intended the partition of the country. But the Nationalists leaders of India had to accept the partition due to the deteriorating condition of India. According to Vallabh Bhai Patel, had it not been partitioned, India would have been completely ruined.
When English established their political supremacy in India, they followed the policy of divide and rule. They divided India on the basis of caste, religion etc. Their policy of divide and rule got manifested in every spheres of life. For instance they introduced separate electorates in 1909.
Their policy of divide and rule encouraged separate tendencies. It checked the progress of India’s unification which had been a continuous historical process. It became a potent factor in the growth of communalism – both Hindu and Muslim in the country. After some time Muslim League propounded two nation theories.
When the English made up their mind to leave India, the problem became very serious as to whom they transfer authority – Congress or Muslim League. Princely states became active to become independent in case of transfer of authority. Muslim League started the Pakistan Movement.
And when cabinet mission plan rejected partition of country, Muslim League gave the call for Direct Action Day. All over the country communal riots started. Thousands of people were killed.
In this background Mountbatten came to India. Initially Lord Mountbatten stated to talk with leaders of India. Seeing that no one was willing to bow, he put forward plan Balkan. As per this plan India was to be divided into a number of small principalities. But this was soon dropped. So in the light of above circumstances it was felt to partition the country otherwise it would be split into many bits.