Implication of Science and Technology to mans’ use is as old as 2500 B.C or much earlier when the people, of Indus Valley Civilization came to know first time about the fire and the wheel. Wheel is the mother of all technological innovations of today and discovery of fire is the man’s first experience about energy.

Since then, man’s curiosity and meticulous efforts have helped him for new inventions and discoveries. But Science and Technology got its real recognition in India during the British period and were established to meet the needs and requirements of the then government. During 19th century, when the whole Europe passed through a phase of Industrial Revolution, the Britishers also put emphasis on development of Science and Technology in India.

Establishment of railway system, building of canals and development of a network of meteorological stations began. The first scientific survey of this country was done during this time. Several academic institutions, such as Asiatic Society in Calcutta in 1784, the Indian Association for the Advancement of Science in 1876 and many others were created

All these generated a greater awareness of science in the country and eventually led to the birth of modern science in India between 1890 and 1940.


However, the end of the last century and the first 50 years of the present one was a period of renaissance of science for India. Renowned scientists like Sir J. C. Bose, C. V. Raman, S. N. Bose, Srinivasa Ramanujan, Dr. Homi J. Bhabha, the father of India’s nuclear power, Vikram Sarabhai, Dr. Har Govind Singh Khorana etc. became well-known for their notable scientific researches in various fields and brought name and fame for the country.

During post independence period and through the vision of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru the then Prime Minister, Science and Technology were developed in a conscious way as a major force for accelerating social and economic change. Nehru clearly expressed his views in his ‘Discovery of India’:

“It was science alone that could solve the problems of hunger and poverty, of insanitation and illiteracy, of superstition and doddering custom and tradition, of vast resources running to waste, of a rich country inhabited by starving people,”

Programme of ‘Green Revolution’ has made it true. Now, in the fields of space research, atomic energy, biotechnology and agriculture, India has achieved a lot. Continuous emergence of new areas and micro areas are gradually gaining the importance and specialized research areas like Superconductivity, Laser, Supercomputers, Robots and Robotics, Information Technology, Optic fibers etc. have resulted in a vast expansion in the areas/fields of SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY activities.


India is still lagging behind in the field of energy; specifically harnessing clean, safe and non-polluting energy through exaltation of non-conventional resources. Solar energy, the limitless source (the sun) provided by the nature, is still underutilized. Though much is achieved, but more is left unattended.

Hence, with the consistent support of the government as well as private institutions today there are about 3000 public and private institutions engaged in basic/fundamental, applied researches and development works in various fields of SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY.