India, on the attainment of independence, adopted the West minister model of democracy. It was mainly due to two factors. The framers of the constitution considered it more democratic.

Secondly, familiarity with the system prompted them to accept it. However, to understand the Indian Constitution in the proper perspective, it is essential to have a brief idea about the making of the constitution and the effect of the freedom movement on it.

The British ruled India for nearly 200 years. In the name of good government they exploited our economy. It was as a result of economic exploitation that the seeds, of nationalist awakening were sown. Of course the growth of nationalist awakening in India was a slow and long drawn process.

The nationalist movement in India was a part of the worldwide upsurge of the concepts of democracy and nationalism. The educated class in India came under the influence of these ideas.


The contribution of Raja Ram Mohan Ray can be considered as noteworthy in this respect. The Sepoy Mutiny of 1857, though crushed ruthlessly, was the first assertion of the discontentment against British rule. The nationalist awakening took some concrete shape with the establishment of the Indian National Congress in 1885.

However, it was mostly dominated by the moderate leaders like S. N. Banerjee, G.K. Gokhale, Dadabhai Naroji and Ferozshah Mehta who were not for the end of British Rule. It was during 1905- 20, under the influence of the extremist leaders like the ‘Lal-Bal-Pal’ and Aurobindo Ghose, the Congress acquired the status of mass organisation and nationalist awakening rose to a considerable height.

After 1920, under the dynamic leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, the Khilafat Movement, Non- cooperation Movement, Civil Disobedience Movement as well as the Quit India Movement were launched. These movements were the manifestation of heightened consciousness among the people which ultimately paved the way for freedom.

However, one should not forget the unfortunate paradox of the Indian nationalist movement that while at each stage progressive ideologies have struck deeper roots in the Indian masses, the communal forces also had become more powerful. The communal sentiments were augmented by the Britishers leading to lamentable partition of the country.